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Krákumál: As últimas palavras de Ragnar Lothbrok?

Krákumál: As últimas palavras de Ragnar Lothbrok?



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Krákumál é um longo poema skáldico (29 estrofes) em nórdico antigo sobre as grandes façanhas de um guerreiro moribundo e a morte em um poço de cobra, composto na voz de Ragnar Lothbrok, mas datado de séculos após sua morte. Este vídeo apresenta uma leitura de trechos em nórdico antigo e na tradução original do Dr. Jackson Crawford para o inglês.

O Dr. Jackson Crawford é instrutor de estudos nórdicos e coordenador do programa nórdico na University of Colorado Boulder (anteriormente UC Berkeley e UCLA). Ele é um linguista histórico e um professor experiente de nórdico antigo, islandês moderno e norueguês.

FAQs: https://youtu.be/tOgU4vgnmxE

Tradução de Jackson Crawford de The Poetic Edda: https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1624663567
Tradução de Jackson Crawford de The Saga of the Volsungs com The Saga of Ragnar Lothbrok: https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1624666337

Página do Patreon de Jackson Crawford: https://www.patreon.com/norsebysw


Krákumál

Krákumál (suom. ”Krákan [eli Variksen] laulu”) em keskiaikainen islantilainen runo, jonka kirjoittajaa ei tunneta. Se tunnetaan yleisesti Ragnarr Karvahousun (isl. Loðbrók) Kuolinlauluna (isl. ævikviða), ja se sisältää yhteensä 29 säkeistöä. Runossa Ragnar Ragnarrista kerrotaan myös muissa saagoissa, erityisesti Ragnarr Karvahousun Saagassa sekä Ragnarrin poikien tarinassa, jotka kumpikin luetaan niin kutsuttuihin muinaissaagoihin. Krákumál em kyseistä saagaa ja tarinaa vanhempi. Sen nimen on katsottu viittaavan Ragnarrin toisen vaimon, Áslaugin, lempinimeen Kráka, mutta esimerkiksi Magnus Olsen (1935) em Krákumálin runsaat taistelukuvaukset huomioiden esittänyt, että varista tarkoittava Kráka on voinut alkujaan viitata kelttiläiseen sodan jumalattareen (Morrigán), joka ilmestyi taisteluihin variksen muodossa. [1] Krákumália ei ole suomennettu.


Ragnar Lothbrok retorna à Inglaterra para se vingar

Ragnar retorna a Kattegat para se vingar do assentamento destruído em Wessex orquestrado pelo Rei Ecbert (Linus Roache) anos antes. Mas ele rapidamente percebe que as pessoas não o seguirão ou lutarão mais por ele. Ele partiu muitos anos antes e eles souberam recentemente sobre o assentamento destruído em Wessex.

Ragnar determina que a única maneira de ir para a Inglaterra é subornar uma pequena quantidade de guerreiros com um tesouro para que retornem à Inglaterra. Funciona e, junto com seu filho, Ivar (Alex Høgh Andersen), eles viajam para Wessex. Ragnar sabe que não tem guerreiros suficientes para se vingar, então ele bolou outro plano.

Ragnar decide que Ivar retornará a Kattegat e contará a história da morte de Ragnar & # 8217 (que ele planeja com antecedência), levando seus filhos a retornar com um grande exército para se vingar dos reis da Inglaterra. Ragnar planeja se vingar, esteja ele vivo ou não, e tudo funcionará exatamente como ele esperava.

Ele consegue voltar para Wessex apesar de um mar traiçoeiro, e muitos de seus guerreiros morrem no processo. Juntos, Ragnar e Ivar matam os guerreiros restantes que ajudaram a trazê-los até lá, e eles vão encontrar o Rei Ecbert.


Círculos Românticos

Thomas Percy (1729 & # 82111811)

1. & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160Thomas Percy, clérigo e bispo de Dromore de 1782 a 1798, tornou-se um dos principais estudiosos em assuntos literários e antiquários. Ele editou uma série de publicações, incluindo traduções do chinês, análises das escrituras hebraicas e uma coleção abortada de canções espanholas sobre assuntos mouros. No entanto, a obra que fez seu nome foi a publicação de um manuscrito que ele descobriu (c. 1753) na casa de seu amigo Humphrey Pitt. As criadas usavam as folhas para acender o fogo. O manuscrito continha versões de baladas tradicionais, provavelmente compiladas em meados do século XVII. Relíquias da antiga poesia inglesa: consistindo em antigas baladas heróicas, canções e outras peças de nossos poetas anteriores (principalmente do tipo lírico) junto com alguns de datas posteriores foi publicado pelo livreiro Robert Dodsley em 1765 e foi um sucesso imediato, com uma quarta edição publicada em 1794. Relíquias foi fundamental para encorajar a coleção e o estudo de baladas inglesas. Mas poetas como William Wordsworth, Walter Scott e S. T. Coleridge também citaram o trabalho de Percy & # 8217s como fonte de inspiração para sua ficção. & # 160 [1] & # 160

2. & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160O antiquário Joseph Ritson atacou Percy por suas práticas editoriais. Embora Percy não tenha fingido nada, ele certamente interferiu nas baladas reescrevendo, combinando e adicionando a elas. Isso foi revelado quando o manuscrito do qual ele trabalhou foi publicado na íntegra por J. W. Hales e F. J. Furnivall como Percy & # 8217s Folio MS (1867). Após sua promoção como bispo, Percy cada vez mais se dissociou do papel de pioneiro no estudo das antiguidades vernáculas.

3. & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 Dois anos antes da primeira edição de Relíquias da Poesia Inglesa Antiga (1765), Percy publicou Cinco peças de poesia rúnica traduzidas da língua islandesa (1763). Como todos os tradutores britânicos da poesia nórdica antiga dos séculos XVII e XVIII, Percy dependia de intermediários latinos. Mas, para verificar as traduções, Percy contou com a ajuda do estudioso anglo-saxão e gótico Edward Lye (1694 & # 82111767). No Cinco peças, & # 8220A Canção da Morte de Ragnar Lodbrog & # 8221 (hoje frequentemente referida como Kr & # 225kum & # 225l ou a Canção de Kraka) foi traduzido na íntegra pela primeira vez. Visto que Ragnar era visto como o epítome das atitudes heróicas e supersticiosas dos antepassados ​​góticos, ele se tornou o texto nórdico antigo mais frequentemente traduzido, abstraído e referido no século XVIII e no início do século XIX. A principal fonte de transmissão do poema foi o antiquário dinamarquês Ole Worm (Lat. Olaus Wormius), que o imprimiu em tradução latina, com uma transcrição em runas, em seu Seu Danica literatura antiquissima (1636, rev. 1651). Os equívocos que mancharam esta versão latina determinaram a interpretação das práticas e crenças dos ancestrais germânicos, especialmente no que diz respeito à tradução incorreta que faz o falante ansiar por farra com vasilhas feitas de crânios humanos (ver estrofe VIII abaixo).

4. & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160O orador do poema é o semi-lendário rei escandinavo, Ragnar Lodbrog (Ragnarr Lo & # 240br & # 243k), que relembra seus feitos de guerreiro em uma cova de cobras venenosas, na qual ele foi jogado por seu inimigo, o Rei Ella de Northumberland. No decorrer das primeiras vinte e uma estrofes, Ragnar relata suas muitas batalhas. O resto do poema é falado no presente poético, enquanto ele está sucumbindo aos efeitos do veneno. Com confiança destemida, Ragnar expressa sua expectativa de se juntar a outros heróis caídos em Odin & # 8217s Valhalla, e ele expõe a esperança de que seus filhos vão vingar seu assassinato.

5. & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 O poema é uma canção escáldica (ou seja, pertence a uma tradição cortês), escrita em uma variação da métrica poética dr & # 243ttkv & # 230 & # 240i. As estrofes foram transmitidas em conexão com Ragnars saga lo & # 240br & # 243kar, que segue em um pergaminho por volta de 1400.

6. & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 No texto abaixo, as notas originais de Percy & # 8217s para o poema foram preservadas, uma vez que algumas delas são indicativas de suas tentativas de fornecer um & # 8220 legível & # Versão 8221 para o público inglês. Este é especialmente um caso de reescrever o Kennings, que requerem conhecimento da mitologia nórdica para fazer sentido. Percy exibe um grau de sinceridade acadêmica, já que frequentemente marca passagens que eram difíceis de entender com asteriscos triplos ou, quando realmente problemáticos, quádruplos (como pode ser visto em várias linhas abaixo). No entanto, um grande número de modificações das adições originais e injustificadas são ignoradas.

7. & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 Foi o antiquário James Johnstone quem produziu a edição mais filologicamente precisa do século XVIII. Johnstone teve a ajuda do ilustre estudioso islandês Gr & # 237mur J & # 243nsson Thorkelin, que era Arquivista Nacional em Copenhague. Nas notas do poema, ele fornece uma visão geral das alusões à geografia do Báltico e à região da Grã-Bretanha. Informações relevantes do trabalho de Johnstone & # 8217s são extraídas abaixo para cada uma das estrofes de Percy & # 8217s. (A interpretação de alguns nomes de lugares no original permanece uma questão controversa.)

  • I. Gothland. Suécia.
  • II. & # 8220 Descreve um noivado no Estreito de Eyra, agora o Som perto Elsinore [Dinamarca] e # 8221
  • III. & # 8220Uma expedição para Duina um rio em Livonia”.
  • 4. & # 8220 Helsing era um distrito de Suécia”.
  • V. & # 8211
  • VI. & # 8220Scarpa-sceria, ou seja, as rochas afiadas, provavelmente Scarpey perto Spangaheidi, no Noruega, a cena de muitos de Regner & # 8217s aventuras & # 8221.
  • VII. & # 8220 Indyriis é pensado para ser o Inder & # 246 ilhas na baía de Drontheim [Noruega] & # 8221.
  • VIII. Uppsala. Suécia
  • IX. & # 8220Burgundar-Holm, agora Bornholm, uma ilha no báltico”.
  • X. & # 8220 Flemingia-veldi, incluiu o antient Bélgica, agora Países Baixos”.
  • XI. & # 8220Todo o resto do poema se relaciona com Regner & # 8217s expedições ao redor do Ilhas britânicas. Engla-nes meios inglês cabo, provavelmente na costa de Kent …”.
  • XII. & # 8220 Bartha-firthi parece ter sido a boca do Tay, perto Perth [Escócia] & # 8221.
  • XIII. & # 8220 Hedninga baía deveria ter estado no Orkneys”.
  • XIV. Northumberland.
  • XV. As Hébridas.
  • XVI. & # 8220Regner faz uma expedição para Irlanda”.
  • XVII. & # 8211
  • XVIII. Ilha do Céu.
  • XIX. Hebrides.
  • XX & # 8220Lindiseyri é por algum pensamento ser Lindisnes no Noruega, mas, como o irlandês são mencionados, é mais provável Leins-tir no Irlanda”.
  • XXI. & # 8220Registra uma batalha, na foz de um rio em Anglesey …”. [2] 

A Ode Morrendo de Regner Lodbrog (1763)

Introdução

1. & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 O rei Regner Lodbrog foi um célebre Poeta, Guerreiro e (o que era a mesma coisa naquela época) Pirata que reinou na Dinamarca, no início do nono século. Depois de muitas expedições bélicas por mar e terra, ele finalmente teve má sorte. Ele foi levado em batalha por sua adversária, Ella, rei de Northumberland. A guerra naqueles tempos rudes era travada com a fama da desumanidade, como agora acontece entre os selvagens da América do Norte: seus prisioneiros eram reservados apenas para serem torturados. Regner foi, portanto, jogado em uma masmorra para ser picado até a morte por serpentes. Enquanto ele estava morrendo, ele compôs esta canção, na qual ele registra todas as conquistas valentes de sua vida, e ameaça Ella com vingança que a história nos informa que foi posteriormente executada pelos filhos de Regner. & # 160 [3] & # 160

2. ” Escaldar ou poeta-laureado, cuja função era aumentar as solenidades de seu funeral cantando algum poema em seu louvor. L & # 8217Edda por Chev. Mallet, p. 150

3. & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160Esta peça foi traduzida do original insular publicado por Olaus Wormius em seu Literatura Runica Hafni & # 230 4to.1631.— Ibidem, 2. Edit. Fol. 1651.

4. & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160N. B. Thora, mencionada na primeira estrofe, era filha de um pequeno príncipe gótico, cujo palácio foi infestado por uma grande serpente que ele ofereceu em casamento a qualquer um que matasse o monstro e a libertasse. Regner realizou a conquista e adquiriu o nome de Lod-brog, o que significa ABRIGOS ou BRILHÕES PELUDOS, porque ele se cobriu completamente com peles ásperas ou peludas antes de fazer o ataque. [Vide Saxon Gram. pag. 152, 153.] & # 8212Este é o relato poético desta aventura: mas a história nos informa que Thora foi mantida prisioneira por um dos vassalos de seu pai & # 8217, cujo nome era Ou eu ou Serpente, e que foi desse homem que Regner a entregou, vestida com a já mencionada armadura desgrenhada. Mas ele próprio opta por comemorá-lo da maneira mais poética.

Lutamos com espadas: *** quando em Gothland matei uma enorme serpente: minha recompensa foi a bela Thora. Daí eu fui considerado um homem: eles me chamaram de Lodbrog daquela matança. *** Eu empurrei o monstro com minha lança, com o aço produtivo de recompensas esplêndidas. & # 160 [4] & # 160

Lutamos com espadas: eu era muito jovem, quando rumo ao leste, nas estreitas de Eirar, ganhamos rios de sangue & # 8224 para o lobo voraz: alimento farto para a ave de patas amarelas. Lá, o ferro duro cantado sobre os elmos elevados. Todo o oceano era uma ferida. O corvo nadou no sangue dos mortos.

& # 8224 Literalmente & # 8220Riversos de feridas. & # 8221 & # 8212Por ave de patas amarelas significa águia.

Lutamos com espadas: erguemos bem alto nossas lanças quando eu já tinha vinte anos, e em todos os lugares adquirimos grande renome. Conquistamos oito barões na foz do Danúbio. Conseguimos amplo entretenimento para a águia naquela matança. O suor sangrento caiu no oceano de feridas. Muitos homens perderam a vida.

Nós lutamos com espadas: nós gostamos da luta, quando enviamos os habitantes de Helsing para a habitação dos deuses & # 8224. Falhamos no Vístula. Então a espada adquiriu despojos: todo o oceano era uma ferida: a terra ficou vermelha com sangue fedorento: a espada sorriu para as cotas de malha: a espada partiu os escudos em pedaços.

& # 8224 Literalmente, & # 8220 para o salão de Odin. & # 8221

Lutamos com espadas: bem me lembro que ninguém fugiu naquele dia na batalha antes dos navios Herauder & # 160 [5] & # 160 caírem. Não há guerreiro mais justo que divida o oceano com seus navios. *** Este príncipe sempre trouxe para a batalha um coração valente.

Lutamos com espadas: o exército jogou fora seus escudos. Em seguida, voou a lança para o peito dos guerreiros. A espada na luta cortou as próprias rochas: o escudo estava todo manchado de sangue, antes que o rei Rafno caísse, nosso inimigo. O suor quente escorre das cabeças das cotas de malha.

Lutamos com espadas, antes das ilhas de Indir. Demos muitas presas para os corvos despedaçarem: um banquete para as feras que se alimentam de carne. Naquela época, todos eram valentes: era difícil destacar qualquer um. Ao nascer do sol, vi as lanças perfurarem: os arcos dispararam as flechas deles.

Lutamos com espadas: alto foi o barulho das armas antes que o rei Eistin caísse no campo. Dali, enriquecidos com despojos de ouro, marchamos para lutar na terra dos Vals. Aí a espada cortou os escudos pintados. & # 8224 & # 8224 No encontro dos capacetes, o sangue escorreu das feridas: escorreu dos espinhos fendidos dos homens.

& # 8224 Din é a palavra no original islandês. Dinn greniudu brottan.  [6] 

& # 8224 & # 8224 Literalmente, & # 8220 as pinturas dos escudos. & # 8221

Nós lutamos com espadas, antes de Boring-holmi. Nós seguramos escudos ensanguentados: manchamos nossas lanças. Chuveiros de flechas quebram o escudo em pedaços. O arco enviou o aço brilhante. Volnir caiu no conflito, do que não houve um rei maior. Largas nas margens estavam os mortos espalhados: os lobos se alegraram com suas presas.

Lutamos com espadas, na terra dos flamengos: a batalha foi amplamente travada antes que o rei Freyr caísse ali. O aço azul, todo fedendo a sangue, caiu finalmente sobre a cota de malha dourada. Muitas virgens lamentaram o riso daquela manhã. As feras predadoras tinham muitos despojos.

Lutamos com espadas, antes de Ainglanes. Lá eu vi milhares de mortos nos navios: nós falhamos na batalha por seis dias antes que o exército caísse. Lá nós celebramos um massa de armas & # 8224. Ao nascer do sol, Valdiofur caiu diante de nossas espadas.

& # 8224 Isto se destina a uma zombaria da religião cristã, que embora & # 8217 não tivesse ganhado qualquer apoio nas nações do norte, quando esta Ode foi escrita, não era totalmente desconhecida para eles. Suas expedições piráticas aos países do sul deram-lhes alguma noção, mas de forma alguma favorável: eles a consideravam a religião dos covardes, porque teria corrigido seus modos selvagens.

Lutamos com espadas, em Bardafyrda. Um cortador de sangue choveu de nossas armas. Caiu de cabeça o cadáver pálido, uma presa para os falcões. O arco deu um estrépito achado. A lâmina cortou bruscamente as cotas de malha: mordeu o capacete na luta. A flecha afiada com veneno e toda salpicada de suor sangrento correu para o ferimento.

Lutamos com espadas, antes da baía de Hiadning. Levantamos escudos mágicos no alto durante a batalha. Então você pode ver homens, que rasgam escudos com suas espadas. Os capacetes importavam no murmúrio dos guerreiros. O prazer daquele dia foi como ter uma bela virgem colocada ao lado de outra na cama. & # 160 [7] & # 160

Lutamos com espadas nas terras da Nortúmbria. Uma furiosa tempestade desceu sobre os escudos: muitos corpos sem vida caíram por terra. Era mais ou menos na hora da manhã, quando o inimigo foi compelido a voar na batalha. Aí, a espada cortou bruscamente o capacete polido. O prazer daquele dia foi como matar uma jovem viúva com o maior feito da mesa.

Lutamos com espadas, nas ilhas do sul. Lá, Herthiose saiu vitorioso: lá morreram muitos de nossos valentes guerreiros. No cortador de armas, Rogvaldur caiu: perdi meu filho. No jogo de armas veio a lança mortal: sua crista elevada foi tingida de sangue coagulado. As aves de rapina lamentaram sua queda: elevaram-se àquele que lhes preparou banquetes.

Lutamos com espadas nas planícies irlandesas. Os corpos dos guerreiros jaziam misturados. O falcão se alegrou com o jogo de espadas. O rei irlandês não fez o papel de uma águia ***. Grande foi o conflito de espada e escudo. O rei Marstan foi morto na baía: ele foi dado uma presa para os corvos famintos.

Lutamos com espadas: a lança ressoou: os estandartes brilharam & # 8224 sobre as cotas de malha. Eu vi muitos guerreiros caírem pela manhã: muitos heróis na contenda de armas. Aqui, a espada atingiu rapidamente o coração de meu filho: foi Egill, sem a vida de Agnar. Ele era um jovem que nunca soube o que era temer.

& # 8224 Ou mais adequadamente & # 8220 refletiu a luz do sol na cota de malha. & # 8221

Lutamos com espadas, em Skioldunga. Mantivemos nossas palavras: esculpimos com nossas armas um farto banquete para os lobos do mar & # 8224. Os navios estavam todos manchados de carmesim, como se por muitos dias as donzelas tivessem trazido e derramado vinho. Todo o aluguel foi a correspondência no choque de armas.

& # 8224 Um nome poético para os peixes predadores.

Lutamos com espadas, quando Harold caiu. Eu o vi lutando no crepúsculo da morte aquele jovem chefe tão orgulhoso de seus cabelos esvoaçantes & # 8224: ele que passava as manhãs entre as jovens donzelas: ele que gostava de conversar com as belas viúvas. ****

& # 8224 Ele se refere a Harold Harfax, rei da Noruega. & # 8212 Harfax (sinônimo de nosso inglês Fairfax) significa Fair-locks.  [8] 

Lutamos com espadas: lutamos com três reis na ilha de Lindis. Poucos tinham motivos para se alegrar naquele dia. Muitos caíram nas mandíbulas das feras. O falcão e o lobo rasgaram a carne dos mortos: eles partiram fartos de suas presas. O sangue dos irlandeses caiu abundantemente no oceano, durante a época daquela matança.

Lutamos com espadas na ilha de Onlug. A arma erguida mordeu os escudos. A lança dourada raspou na cota de malha. Os rastros dessa luta serão vistos por muito tempo. Lá os reis marcharam para o jogo das armas. Os costumes do mar estavam manchados de sangue. As lanças pareciam dragões voadores.

Lutamos com espadas. A morte é a porção feliz do bravo & # 8224, pois ele se destaca contra a tempestade de armas. Ele, que foge do perigo, muitas vezes lamenta sua vida miserável. No entanto, quão difícil é atrapalhar um covarde para o jogo das armas? O covarde não sente coração no peito.

& # 8224 Os guerreiros do norte pensaram que nenhum deles tinha direito a Elizium, mas aqueles que morreram em batalha ou sofreram uma morte violenta.

Lutamos com espadas. Os jovens devem marchar para o conflito de armas: o homem deve encontrar o homem e nunca ceder. Nisso sempre consistiu a nobreza do guerreiro. Ele, que aspira ao amor de sua amante, deve ser destemido no choque de armas.

Lutamos com espadas. Agora tenho certeza de que fomos arrastados pelo destino. Quem pode fugir dos decretos do destino? Eu poderia ter pensado que a conclusão da minha vida estava reservada para Ella quando quase morrendo eu derramei torrentes de sangue? Quando lancei meus navios nas profundezas? Quando nos gulphs escoceses ganhei grandes despojos para os lobos?

Lutamos com espadas: isso ainda me enche de alegria, porque sei que um banquete está sendo preparado pelo pai dos deuses. Em breve, no esplêndido salão de Odin, nós (beberemos Cerveja & # 8224 do enxame de nossos inimigos. & # 160 [9] & # 160 Um homem corajoso não se encolhe na morte. aproxime-se do palácio dos deuses. & # 160 [10] & # 160

& # 8224 Beer e Mead eram o único néctar das nações do norte. Odin, dentre todos os deuses, deveria beber Vinho. Vid. Bartholin.

Lutamos com espadas. Oh, se os filhos de Aslauga & # 8224 soubessem, Oh, se meus filhos conhecessem os sofrimentos de seu pai! que numerosas serpentes cheias de veneno me despedaçam! Logo eles estariam aqui: logo eles travariam uma guerra amarga com suas espadas. Dei uma mãe para meus filhos, de quem eles herdam um coração valente.

& # 8224 Aslauga foi sua segunda esposa, com quem se casou após a morte de Thora.

Lutamos com espadas. Agora eu toco em meus últimos momentos. Recebo uma ferida mortal da víbora. Uma serpente habita o salão do meu coração. Logo meus filhos enegrecem suas espadas com o sangue de Ella. Eles ficam vermelhos de fúria: eles queimam de raiva. Esses jovens corajosos não vão descansar até que tenham vingado seu pai.

Lutamos com espadas. As batalhas cinquenta e um foram travadas sob meus estandartes. Desde a minha juventude aprendi a tingir minha espada de carmesim: nunca consegui encontrar um rei mais valente do que eu. Os deuses agora me convidam para eles. A morte não deve ser lamentada.

& # 8216É com alegria que paro. As deusas do destino vieram me buscar. Odin os enviou da habitação dos deuses. Eu envio o correio para ser recebido com alegria no assento mais alto onde eu engulo taças cheias entre os deuses. As horas da minha vida já passaram. Eu morro de rir. & # 160 [11] & # 160

Notas

[1] Para uma visão geral, consulte Kathryn Sutherland, & # 8220 The Native Poet: The Influence of Percy & # 8217s Minstrel from Beattie to Wordsworth & # 8221, Revisão de estudos ingleses 33 (1982): 414 e # 821133. DE VOLTA

[2] Fonte: Lodbrokar-Quida ou a canção da morte de Lodbrog, agora primeiro corretamente impresso a partir de vários manuscritos, ed. James Johnstone (Copenhagen, 1782), 95 & # 8211111. DE VOLTA

[3] Essa vingança, nos contam as histórias anglo-saxãs e escandinavas, ocorreu quando guerreiros, que se diz serem filhos de Ragnar & # 8217s, invadiram o nordeste da Inglaterra em 867. VOLTAR

[4] A primeira estrofe, sobre a vitória sobre uma criatura sobrenatural, está estranhamente fora de sincronia com as descrições de batalhas humanas comuns enumeradas no resto do poema. Provavelmente foi introduzido como parte de uma tradição diferente associada a Ragnar. No ensaio de Percy & # 8217s & # 8220On Ancient Metrical Romances & ampc & # 8221, prefixado ao terceiro volume de Relíquias da Poesia Inglesa Antiga, Percy usou Ragnar & # 8217s conquista de cavaleiro único nesta estrofe como evidência de romances métricos ingleses sendo fundados na tradição nórdica. Ele diz isso apesar do fato de que o poema não se refere de outra forma a Ragnar em conexão com qualquer empreendimento romântico. DE VOLTA

[6] Esta nota editorial sobre a semelhança entre os nórdicos jantar e o inglês estrondo parece não dar nenhuma informação essencial ao leitor além de destacar a proximidade da tradução de Percy & # 8217s com o original. Também pode servir para apoiar sua afirmação no prefácio de Cinco peças, no qual ele fala da quase afinidade entre as tradições nórdica e anglo-saxônica, referindo-se ao islandês como um & # 8220 dialeto de irmã & # 8221 do inglês. No entanto, a anotação é baseada em uma leitura incorreta. Fonte de Percy & # 8217s, Worm & # 8217s Literatura runica, teve Hett greniudu hrottar. É assim também que a linha é traduzida na transcrição do original islandês que Percy incluiu no apêndice de sua antologia. DE VOLTA

[7] A aparente continuidade entre a belicosidade de Ragnar & # 8217 e seus sentimentos amorosos prendeu os comentaristas do século XVIII. Isso foi resultado de um erro de tradução na edição do Worm & # 8217s de uma negação nórdica, que infelizmente fez com que parecesse uma comparação com implicações positivas aqui, bem como nas estrofes 14 e 18. Na verdade, os nórdicos & # 8211at sufixo no original (vasat) torna as sentenças negativas (& # 8220; não era tão & # 8221). O que foi criado foi a imagem de um guerreiro cujos pensamentos de guerra estavam impregnados de romance, enquanto, no original, a construção é usada para contrastar a luta no campo de batalha e o conforto no idílio doméstico e erótico. Não foi antes de 1806, em William Herbert & # 8217s Selecione a poesia islandesa que esse erro foi corrigido por um tradutor de inglês. DE VOLTA

[8] Percy, seguindo Ole Worm, refere-se a Harold I (chamado de & # 8220Fairhair & # 8221) da Noruega (Haraldr h & # 225rfagri, c. 840 e # 8211933). No entanto, não há nenhuma lenda mencionando Ragnar matando Harold, que também teria vivido quase um século tarde demais para os dois homens se encontrarem na batalha. A denominação deve se referir ao Rei Aurn, um governante gaélico das Ilhas Ocidentais, cujo nome é mencionado no original. DE VOLTA

[9] Uma das imagens mais impressionantes na tradução do Worm & # 8217s foi a frase ex concavis crateribus craniorum (& # 8220a cavidade oca dos crânios & # 8221). Essas linhas foram anotadas com o comentário: Os heróis esperabantes estão na aula Othini bibituros ex craniis eorum quos occiderant (& # 8220Os heróis esperavam beber no salão de Odin & # 8217 com os crânios daqueles que haviam matado & # 8221). Esta interpretação foi baseada na má interpretação de um Kenning, ou seja, uma frase composta metafórica formando a base de grande parte da poesia skáldica. O nórdico antigo & # 243r bj & # 250gvi & # 240um hausa [literalmente, & # 8220 da madeira curva das cabeças & # 8221] é simplesmente uma substituição para recipientes de bebida feitos de osso de animal. Esse mal-entendido veio a desempenhar um papel injustificado na percepção da cultura Viking, já que essa linha era freqüentemente citada. DE VOLTA

[10] Odin & # 8217s Valhalla. O poema continua a ser uma aberração no que diz respeito à tradição de bravos heróis indo para Valhalla, uma vez que apenas alguns casos em todo o corpo da literatura nórdica antiga apontam para uma morte fora da batalha como tornando o herói elegível para um lugar no Valhalla. DE VOLTA

[11] No original, linha de conclusão de Ragnar & # 8217s, l & # 230jandi skalk deyja, traduz literalmente como & # 8220rindo, morrerei & # 8221. Essas famosas últimas palavras eram freqüentemente usadas para resumir a ideia de desafio à morte no norte. Uma ilustração disso é a tradução de S. Ferguson & # 8217s em Madeira pretas Edinburgh Magazine 33 (1833): 915, que enfatizou a celebração da morte de Ragnar & # 8217, introduzindo uma interjeição enfaticamente jubilosa (sem base em textos fonte nórdicos ou latinos): & # 8220E & # 8217en no dia de minha morte, / I & # 8217 rirei um outras risadas ainda & # 8211 / Ainda antes de eu morrer, Viva & # 8211 viva & # 8211 viva! & # 8221 VOLTAR


Uma breve viagem inicial

Estamos acostumados a assistir muitos e muitos Vikings neste ponto, então você pode se surpreender que o programa originalmente deveria ter apenas nove episódios - uma duração que O jornal New York Times considerado "ambicioso".

A minissérie, que foi ao ar em 2013, veio na esteira do sucesso de três partes do History Channel Hatfields e amp McCoys. Estrelado por Kevin Costner e Bill Paxton, entre outros, trouxe drama narrativo e poder de estrela para uma rede que normalmente se voltava mais para documentários e reality shows. Embora não seja perfeito, Hatfields e amp McCoys mostrou à rede que poderia haver um interesse significativo em outras minisséries dramatizadas. Equipado com esse conhecimento e com o público masculino mais jovem e voltado para a ação em mente, a História decidiu sair em seus barcos em busca de peixes maiores. O resultado? Vikings.


Discurso da morte de ragnar

Autocolante Rei Ella da Nortúmbria, que futuro horrível à sua frente! S M L XL 2XL 3XL 4XL 5XL. Este design está igualmente disponível em t-shirt, hoodie e camisola. Ragnar fingiu sua própria morte e foi transportado dentro dos muros da cidade em um caixão. Capuz. Ela nunca realmente entende ... Segs. Estilo. Uma pintura / ilustração digital de um corvo em vôo com o discurso da morte de Ragnar Lothbrok sobre colocado. Discurso de adeus de Ragnar à caneca de Athelstan. Descrição Caneca do discurso final de Ragnar. Embora você fale em fazer a obra de Deus afirmando: Ragnar dá instruções finais a seu filho Ivar a respeito do Rei Ecbert de Wessex: Ragnar fala ao Vidente: "Eu guiei meu destino! Em breve estarei bebendo cerveja de chifres curvos. Uma pintura digital / ilustração de um corvo voando com o discurso da morte de Ragnar Lothbrok sobreposto. A história de Ragnar só foi escrita 350 anos após sua morte, o que faz com que alguns historiadores desconfiem de sua existência. Mais de 150.000 filmes e episódios de TV, incluindo milhares para membros do Amazon Prime sem custo adicional. # Vikings #RagnarFinalScene Religião pode ser uma coisa horrível. Espero que você tenha gostado do vídeo, por favor, deixe um 'curtir' se você gostou e inscreva-se. Voltar ao Design. Porque Ivar não pense como os outros homens (muito parecido com Ragnar.) Antes que o feito seja feito, Ragnar faz um discurso comovente, mas, aparentemente, Fimmel não estava muito louco com a ideia do discurso inteiro no início. Porque Ivar se tornou o filho mais poderoso de Ragnar. Veja mais eu idéias sobre ragnar, citações de viking, citações de ragnar. Presentes e mercadorias de Ragnar de alta qualidade. Não entrarei no salão de Odin com medo. Relacionados: Vikings: o que aconteceu ao corpo de Ragnar Lothbrok após sua morte A 3ª temporada viu o cerco de Paris, um confronto entre as forças francas do rei Carlos, o Ousado, e o exército viking liderado por Ragnar. Durante o primeiro ataque, Ragnar escalou uma torre, mas foi empurrou a borda e sofreu uma queda muito forte, batendo com as costas, batendo contra a parede e caindo em uma pilha de cadáveres. Aqui, então, está o vínculo: eles são. por ValhallaDesigns $ 20. Mins. Masculino feminino. Este herói que entra em Valhalla não lamenta sua morte! O próprio Ragnar está nos confins de nosso passado, no cinza escuro que une o mito e a história. Ragnar. Projetado e vendido por ValhallaDesigns Uma pintura / ilustração digital de um corvo em vôo com o discurso da morte de Ragnar Lothbrok sobreposto. Completamente desolado, ele se despediu do amigo em uma das cenas mais emocionantes do show. Parece óbvio que as palavras não vieram do próprio Ragnar, mas de uma época posterior. Tags: tv, celeb, famous, painting, holywood Voltar ao Design. Trabalhando na sangrenta saída de Ragnar, Ciaran sabia a gravidade disso e como sua morte afetaria tudo o que veio depois. A igreja em Laodicéia da Ásia Menor é a última das 7 igrejas para as quais Jesus enviou cartas no Livro do Apocalipse ... e nas Escrituras. "Suddenly, I Could See. Beyond the Cliffs", Enya - O Come, O Come, Emmanuel (Lyric Video) : My favorite Enya Christmas song, "My Death comes without Apology." View Size Chart. $14 $20. » SUBSCRIBE: http://www.youtube.com/channel/UCwSIJCMWZC5GDM59wj7pMsg?sub_confirmation=1Get More Prime Video: Watch More: http://bit.ly/WatchPrimeVideoUKNowFacebook: http://bit.ly/PrimeVideoUKFacebookTwitter: http://bit.ly/PrimeVideoUKTwitterInstagram: http://bit.ly/PrimeVideoUKInstagramAbout Prime Video:Want to watch it now? . 3 Ragnar's Speech To Athelstan. Krákumál is a long (29-stanza) skaldic poem in Old Norse about a dying warrior's great exploits and death in a snake-pit, composed in the voice of Ragnar Lothbrok but dating to centuries after his death. Power is only given to those who … Jun 5, 2017 - Explore Lauriel Thornton's board "Ragnar Quotes" on Pinterest. Perfect Gift for Vikings Series and Ragnar Lothbrok Fans!This design is also available on enamel mug, face mask, neck gaiter, T-shirt, hoodie and sweatshirt. Personally, I believe the latter. And I welcome the Valkyries to summon me home!”

Yggdrasill. The unknowing feeling at … We've got it. Hours. Odin’s Gift says:. Ragnar is said to have been the father of three sons— Halfdan, Inwaer (Ivar the Boneless), and Hubba (Ubbe)—who, according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and other medieval sources, led a Viking invasion of East Anglia in 865. In an epic final moment, Ragnar shares to the spectators how he wants to be remembered. Main Tag Ragnar Mask. There I shall wait for my sons to join me. This video features a reading from excerpts in both Old Norse and in Dr. Jackson Crawford's original English translation. Tags: celtic, norse, odin, odinism, valhalla Available in Plus Size T-Shirt. All orders are custom made and most ship worldwide within 24 hours. Watch this scene from Episode 15 - Ragnar delivers his final speech. Not to be confused with her namesake, Gyda (Shieldmaiden).Gyda Ragnarsdottir was the daughter of Ragnar Lothbrok and Lagertha who perished during the plague along with Thyri, in Kattegat. Vikings season 4 did something that TV shows rarely do: it killed off its main character, Ragnar Lothbrok.The Norse king's death - execution by being dropped into a pit of venomous snakes - was lifted straight from the Viking sagas, and was necessary … My favorite example is in the 1958 movie, "The Vikings", in which Ernest Borgnine portrays Ragnar Lodbrok. Ragnar Death Speech T-Shirt. Religion can be a horrible thing. However, is the poem even remotely genuine? As soon as Athelstan died, Ragnar's life was in a downward spiral. Ragnar Lothbrok, "Still Waters Run Deep. " Gleanings from John 4:7-31, The Letter to the Church in Laodicea. from the Book of. Revelation. part 7, Woo-hoo! The Vikings are back. season 4, episode 11. . My death comes without apology. More Ragnar Death Speech Products. Soon I shall be drinking ale from curved horns. "You were a brave man, Athelstan. In the end, with Ragnar in a cage with poisonous snakes below, speaks: The question lies: Did he say that because he believes that, or did he say that for the love of his people? “Power is dangerous. Description. For four seasons on History's historical drama Vikings, Travis Fimmel starred as Ragnar Lothbrok — father, fearless warrior-king of Denmark, and the bane of England and France. Ragnar then composes his Life-Song/Death-speech as Death reaches for him. Why? "Ivar the Boneless". The Vikings on the History C. Ragnar Lothbrok! Description. Vikings creator and writer, Michael Hirst, also maintained this death for Ragnar in the television series. Size. In the eyes of Ragnar, it is far more important for Ivar to remain alive. The death of Helga’s daughter hurts her for a long time. According to the history books, Ragnar died in a snake pit, at the hands of King Aelle (played by Ivan Kaye in the TV series). This week's newest movies, last night's TV shows, classic favourites, and more are available to stream instantly, plus all your videos are stored in Your Video Library. Why? The legend of Ragnar Lothbrok says that he died just like in the series: thrown into a pit of snakes by King Aelle, but the trick here is that Ragnar’s existence is unclear, and the Viking warrior everyone knows might actually be a combination of different real … Ragnar's eyes gaze on the young boy Alfred, the son of Athelstan. by ValhallaDesigns $10 . Later to be hailed Alfred the Great, Ragnar yields the necklace given him by Althelstan and says: "Here, take this, in the end, people will choose. your kind." A Slave Kills Helga. The unknowing feeling at death. Is there nothing more sacred? So his final great speech from the cage before he dies is not a statement of his own belief, it's a political statement to encourage his sons to avenge his death. In the history of the hit series Vikings, one death has stung more than all the rest.The murder of Ragnar Lothbrok (Travis Fimmel) was hard to watch and it’s something that sticks with you long after you finish watching it. The complete Old Norse skaldic poem “Krákumál” (Lay of Kráka), probably composed at the end of the 12th century on Iceland, consists of 29 stanzas. … Main Tag Ragnar T-Shirt. 0:34. Color: White. "Don't tell me the moon is shining: show me the glint of light in a broken glass." Tags: celtic, norse, odin, odinism, valhalla Back to Design. Ragnar Lodbrok or Lothbrok (Old Norse: Ragnarr Loðbrók, "Ragnar shaggy breeches", Modern Icelandic: Ragnar Loðbrók) is a legendary Viking hero, as well as, according to the Gesta Danorum, a legendary Danish and Swedish king. A horrid future ahead for you death at the bottom of a muddy snake pit, but a. This video features a reading from excerpts in both Old norse and in Dr. Jackson Crawford 's original English.. 'S original English translation Vikings are Back. season 4, Episode 11 in both Old and. Around the world the unknowing feeling at … However, is the poem even remotely genuine said. A 'like ' if you did, and please subscribe most emotional.. 4, Episode 11 jun 5, 2017 - Explore Lauriel Thornton 's board `` Ragnar ''. It seems obvious the words did not come from Ragnar himself, but from a later time Ragnar in television. And HISTORY Crawford 's original English translation Ivar the Boneless ''. the Vikings are Back. Waters '', from a later time I shall not enter Odin 's with! Sons to join me please leave a 'like ' if you did, and please subscribe the movie. See more ideas about Ragnar, viking quotes, Ragnar shares to the spectators how he wants to remembered. And please subscribe Northumbria, what a horrid future ahead for you sense of peace and tranquility please leave 'like. All orders are custom made and most ship worldwide within 24 hours, stickers, home decor and. 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Vikings True Story: How The Real Ragnar Lothbrok Died

Vikings has done its best to be as historically accurate as possible – so, how accurate was Ragnar's death? Here's how the real Ragnar died.

Season 4 of Vikings saw the demise of its lead, Ragnar Lothbrok, but how did the real Ragnar die? Created by Michael Hirst, Vikings made its debut on History Channel in 2013, and was originally planned to be a miniseries. However, the first episodes were so well received that it was renewed for a second season, coming to an end after six seasons and lots of violent and tragic deaths, including those of some of its main characters, such as Ragnar and Lagertha.

Vikings initially followed Ragnar Lothbrok (Travis Fimmel) and his travels and raids alongside his Vikings brothers. As the stories progressed, the series began to shift its focus to Ragnar’s sons and their own journeys, making them the protagonists – which came in handy after season 4, as Ragnar died. Embora Vikings is a historical drama and Hirst made a lot of research when developing the series, thus taking many elements from history, it also had to make some up so it could tell the desired stories, more so as there are not many records on the characters depicted in the show.

Ragnar Lothbrok, for example, is a big mystery, but Vikings took many details from the legends of the great Ragnar. In season 4’s episode “All His Angels”, after torturing him and cutting a cross into his head, King Aelle threw Ragnar into a pit of snakes, from which he couldn’t (nor tried to) escape. The legend of Ragnar Lothbrok says that he died just like in the series: thrown into a pit of snakes by King Aelle, but the trick here is that Ragnar’s existence is unclear, and the Viking warrior everyone knows might actually be a combination of different real-life people, with a dose of fiction to add to the legend.

The figure of Ragnar Lothbrok is believed to have been based on three different men: Viking leader Reginherus, King Horik I of Denmark (who appears in the series), and King Reginfrid. With that in mind, the “real” Ragnar died in different ways. Reginherus (or Reginheri) is said to have been killed, though details are unknown King Horik I, along with other kings, were killed in a battle with the forces of his exiled brother, Guttorm, who returned to claim the kingdom (and also died in that battle) and King Reginfrid is said to have been killed in an attempted invasion. When bringing Ragnar Lothbrok’s story to TV, having him die in a pit of snakes as he did in the legend makes a better, more dramatic story than dying in battle or being killed during an invasion.

While Vikings isn’t fully historically accurate, it’s understandable that Hirst and company have taken many creative liberties, as there’s not enough material to work with. Ragnar’s case is a very special one, as everything about him is mere speculation and legend, but at least the most interesting and dramatic version of his death made it to the series.


Personalidade

Ragnar is a complicated person. He is smart, curious, ambitious, and not without his flaws. He can have times of great despair, impulsivity, doubt, and being overly fascinated with his death. Ragnar can struggle with the two sides of who he is, the man and the legend he becomes. He begins as a family man and often describes himself as a farmer even after he becomes a king. On the other hand, he is known throughout Scandinavia and England as a fearsome warrior and bloodthirsty conquer. While described by the Saxons as a pillaging murderer, he’s not worse than any other Viking in his culture. Ragnar intentionally plays up this conception of him as a form of psychological warfare. He has an extramarital affair that drives away his loving wife and partially alienates him from his eldest son. He can occasionally be selfish, prone to rage, and sometimes seems to have lost his mind. However, Ragnar also can be compassionate, understanding, and supportive. He is protective of his people and his family.

Ragnar always strives to embodies the ideals of Norse society. He claims kinship with the god Odin and takes him for his patron god. He also has the common Norse belief that one’s fate has already been decided. He attributes the twists and turns in life to the whims of the gods. He is often grimly fatalistic about the future. However, upon meeting Athelstan and befriending him, Ragnar learns about Christianity and this leads to him questioning the gods and fate. Ragnar tells the Seer, “You and your gods are wrong. You see I guided my fate, me not you, not the gods.” In the end, Ragnar returns to his faith. His faith can be so strong at times that it rubs off on those around him. For example, Lagertha is originally skeptical about fate, but later embraces it as much as Ragnar when she witnesses the strength of his belief in it. Ragnar’s adoption of Christianity may have been more of a show of respect and love for Athelstan than due to any real belief in Christ. Evidence of this includes him slaying the priest who baptized him without a thought. Although this is complicated by the instance when Ragnar is seemingly dying of his wounds and is visited by a vision of Athelstan. As Ragnar reaches out toward him, Athelstan is transformed in Jesus. They are interrupted by Odin who leaves Ragnar lying in a pool of blood.

Like all Norse warriors, Ragnar is brave in battle and respects worthy adversaries, such as Earl Haraldson and King Ecbert. Even though he killed Haraldson in single combat, Ragnar honors him with a great funeral and says he was “a great man and warrior who earned his renown in this life and now in death.” He suffers from a lack of approval as King of Kattegat when the fate of the Wessex settlement finally comes to light as well as his role in covering it up so he could conquer Frankia. However, he still commands sufficient respect in the north that most people still outwardly treat him with honor. And his legend was still so strong that his sons forbade the election of another king in his ten-year absence. Of course, he later engineers his death in Britain in such a way that it complete rehabilitates his reputation and incites a massive horde of Norse warriors to destroy the kingdoms of Wessex and Northumbria.


Ragnar Lodbrok Sigurdsson b 767, King of Denmark & Sweden

Ragnar Lodbrok Sigurdsson was a Norse Viking hero and legendary king of Denmark and Sweden and is well known from Viking Age Old Norse poetry and sagas. Ragnar lived during the early early days of the Viking age.

The next three ancestral tales will cover your ancestors who were kings over the first unified countries of Norway, Denmark, and Sweden. Consequently, I think it important to provide you with an overview of what it was like in Scandinavia during those early days prior to introducing Ragnar Lodbrok Sigurdsson.

It is important to note that most of what we know about Vikings comes from sagas that were written a couple centuries after the actual event. .Sagas are stories mostly about ancient Nordic and Germanic history, early Viking voyages, the battles that took place during the voyages, and migration to Iceland and of feuds between Icelandic families. They were written in the Old Norse language, mainly in Iceland. Many other experiences were recorded in the form of songs and poetry.

The history of Scandinavia is the history of a geographical region of Scandinavia and its peoples. The region is in northern Europe , and consists of Denmark , Norway , and Sweden .

In Scandinavia, the time following the last ice age period begins at circa 9500 BC. With the ice age over, humans began colonizing this new land. However, in recent years there have been archaeological finds in caves which strongly suggest human inhabitation before the Weichsel glaciations, at least 50,000 years ago, presumably by Neanderthals.

Scandinavian settlements and voyages

Vikings, also called Norseman or Northman, were members of the Scandinavian seafaring warriors who raided and colonized wide areas of Europe. These pagan Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish warriors were probably prompted to undertake their raids by a combination of factors ranging from overpopulation at home to the relative helplessness of victims abroad. The period from the earliest recorded raids in the 790s until the Norman Conquest of England in 1066 is commonly known as the Viking Age of Scandinavian history.

In the western seas, Scandinavian expansion touched practically every possible point. Settlers poured into Iceland from at least about 900, and, from Iceland, colonies were founded in Greenland and attempted in North America. The same period saw settlements arise in the Orkney, Faroe, and Shetland islands, the Hebrides, and the Isle of Man.

The Vikings were ruled by powerful kings and noblemen. The term king was not used in the same way as it is today, because in the Viking period several kings could exist at the same time and they are typically referred to as “petty kings.”In addition, the status of king was not automatically inherited, but had to be fought for.

Below the kings were the nobles or wealthy Vikings known as jarls. They were rich landowners or traders and they employed men to work for them.

Then there were the karls. They were the everyday people and did jobs like farming and craft work. Karls weren’t as rich or important as the jarls, but they weren’t poor either.

At the bottom were the thralls or slaves. They did the hardest, dirtiest jobs and if they tried to run away they could be killed. However, if thralls could earn enough money they could buy their freedom.

The Norse people had their own laws and government. The community would gather together at a meeting called a “Thing.” Here they would settle problems and make decisions. People could vote on what should happen. For example, the Thing might decide who owned a piece of land or how to punish a criminal. All this was overseen by a chieftain or a judge known as a law-speaker. One of the most common methods of punishment was to turn the criminal loose in the forest and let the public go after them and inflict punishment as they saw fit.

Viking laws were not written down, so laws were passed from person to person by word of mouth. People who broke the law became outlaws. They were forced to live in the wilderness and anyone was allowed to hunt them down and kill them.

Many Vikings worked as farmers. Everything was to be done by hand. Farmers grew oats, barley and wheat. They ground the grain to make flour, porridge and ale. They planted vegetables too, and kept animals like cows, sheep, pigs and chickens.

Other Vikings were craft workers. They made the things that people needed. Woodworkers and leatherworkers made plates, cups, belts and shoes. Jewellers made rings and brooches from precious metals. Blacksmiths hammered and twisted red-hot iron into tools, knives and swords. Potters baked clay pots in an oven heated by wood fires.

People took these goods to market to sell. Here a family could buy anything from amber beads and apples, to walrus tusks and wolf-skins. Viking traders sold their goods even further away. They sailed the seas to buy silver, silk, spices and furs to bring back home.

The Viking diet consisted of meat products of all kinds, such as cured, smoked and whey-preserved meat, sausages, and boiled or fried fresh meat cuts were prepared and consumed. There was plenty of seafood, bread, porridges, dairy products, and vegetables. Vikings collected and ate fruits, berries and nuts. Apple wild plums and cherries were part of the diet, as were raspberry, wild strawberry, blackberry, elderberry. Certain livestock were typical and unique to the Vikings, including the Icelandic horse, Icelandic cattle, and a plethora of sheep breeds. The York Vikings mostly ate beef, mutton, and pork with small amounts of horse meat. Chickens were kept for both their meat and eggs. In some places seafood was more important than meat. Whales and walrus were hunted for food in Norway and the north-western parts of the North Atlantic region, and seals were hunted nearly everywhere. Oysters, mussels and shrimps were eaten in large quantities, and cod and salmon were also popular..

Milk and buttermilk were popular, both as cooking and drinks, but were not always available. Milk from cows, goats and sheep was used.

Vikings loved silk and spices which required they travel to Russia. Russians had imported them from China.

Many Viking families lived together in a longhouse. They was built from wood or stone and had a thatched or turf roof. With just one room for all the family to share with their animals, a longhouse would have been a crowded and smelly place to live. There was no bathroom inside, but the Vikings kept clean by washing in a wooden bucket or beside a stream. Instead of toilets, people used a cesspit, which was a hole outside dug for toilet waste.

Another important role played by the women of the house was handing on knowledge to the next generation in the home by sharing poems and stories, including the famous myths and sagas that were later written down in medieval Iceland.

Women in Viking Age Scandinavia did enjoy an unusual degree of freedom for their day. Eles poderiam possuir propriedades, solicitar o divórcio e recuperar seus dotes se o casamento terminasse. Women tended to marry between the ages of 12 and 15. Though the man was the “ruler” of the house, the woman played an active role in managing her husband, as well as the household. As mulheres nórdicas tinham plena autoridade na esfera doméstica, especialmente quando seus maridos estavam ausentes. Se o homem da família morresse, sua esposa adotaria seu papel de forma permanente, administrando sozinha a fazenda da família ou o comércio. Many women in Viking Age Scandinavia were buried with rings of keys, which symbolized their roles and power as household managers.Although they were few, women rose to a particularly high status and it is said that “Shieldmaidens” dressed like men and fought alongside them.

Vikings followed the traditional religious rituals practiced by Norse pagans in Scandinavia in pre-Christian times. Norse religion was a folk religion, as opposed to an organized religion, and its main purpose was the survival and regeneration of society. Therefore, the faith was decentralized and tied to the village and the family, although evidence exists of great national religious festivals. Norse religion was at no time homogeneous but was a conglomerate of related customs and beliefs. These religious beliefs were heavily connected to Norse mythology. Vikings placed heavy emphasis on battle, honor and focused on the idea of Valhalla, a mythical home with the gods for fallen warriors.

Christianity in Scandinavia came later than most parts of Europe. In Denmark Harald Bluetooth Christianized the country around 980 AD+. The process of Christianization began in Norway during the reigns of Olaf Tryggvason (reigned 995 AD–c.1000 AD) and Olaf II Haraldsson (reigned 1015 AD–1030 AD). Olaf and Olaf II had been baptized voluntarily outside of Norway. Olaf II managed to bring English clergy to his country. Norway’s conversion from the Norse religion to Christianity was mostly the result of English missionaries. As a result of the adoption of Christianity by the monarchy and eventually the entirety of the country, traditional shamanistic practices were marginalized and eventually persecuted. Völvas, practitioners of seid, a Scandinavian pre-Christian tradition, were executed or exiled under newly Christianized governments in the eleventh and twelfth centuries

Sweden required a little more time to transition to Christianity, with indigenous religious practices commonly held in localized communities well until the end of the eleventh century. A brief Swedish civil war ensued in 1066 primarily reflecting the divisions between practitioners of indigenous religions and advocates of Christianity by the mid-twelfth century, the Christian faction appeared to have triumphed the once resistant center of Uppsala became the seat of the Swedish Archbishop in 1164. The Christianization of Scandinavia occurred nearly simultaneously with the end of the Viking era. The adoption of Christianity is believed to have aided in the absorption of Viking communities into the greater religious and cultural framework of the European continent.

RAGNAR LODBROK SIGURDSSON b 767

Ragnar Loldbrok Sigurdsson is my 42nd Great Grandfather. What is known about him comes mostly from sagas, songs, and poetry. I have chosen to begin with him because of the general interest our present society has in the Viking age. Please be aware that the accounts of his life and adventures were written two centuries after his death .Consequently, there are varying accounts.

Ragnar Lodbrok SIGURDSSON, Legendary King of Denmark and Sweden, was born about 767 in Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden. He died in 845 in Northumbria, England. He was buried in 845 in Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden. Ragnar married Aslaug Sigurdsdottir WOLSUNG in 783 in Århus, Denmark. Aslaug was born about 755 in Ringerike, Buskerud, Norway. She died in 870 in Ringerike, Buskerud, Norway.

Ragbar’s father was Sigurd “Ring” RANDVARSSON King of Sweden who was born in 730 in Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden. He died in 812 in Bråvalla, Östergötland, Sweden and was buried in Roskilde, Roskilde, Denmark. Sigurd married Alfhild GANDOLFSDOTTIR Queen of Denmark & Norway.

Ragnar Lothbrok was a historically Norse Viking hero and legendary king of Denmark and Sweden, known from Viking Age Old Norse poetry and sagas. According to that traditional literature, Ragnar distinguished himself by many raids against Francia and Anglo-Saxon England during the 9th century.

Legendary Wives of Ragnar Lothbrok :

Ladgerda, who, though a maiden, had the courage of a man, and fought in front among the bravest with her hair loose over her shoulders. All marvelled at her matchless deeds, for her locks flying down her back betrayed that she was a woman.

Impressed with her courage, Ragnar courted her from afar. Lagertha feigned interest and Ragnar arrived to seek her hand, bidding his companions wait in the Gaular valley. He was set upon by a bear and a great hound which Lagertha had guarding her home, but killed the bear with his spear and choked the hound to death. Thus he won the hand of Lagertha. According to Saxo, Ragnar had a son with her, Fridleif, as well as two daughters, whose names are not recorded

Thora Borgarhjört , is a mythical character in the Norse sagas – the wife of Ragnar Loðbrók, who kills a serpent to win her hand in marriage.

According to the sagas, Thora lived in a bower in Västergötland. Her father gave her a small lindworm that grew into a large serpent and encircled the bower. Her father promised Thora’s hand in marriage to any man who could slay the serpent.

After divorcing his first wife, the shield-maiden Lagertha, Ragnar wanted to make Thora his wife. He went to the bower, wearing breeches that he had treated with tar and sand to protect his legs from the serpent’s poison. It was from these that he gained the epithet Loðbrók (which literally means “Hairy-Britches”). Wielding a spear, Ragnar approached the serpent. It spat poison at him, but the poison could not penetrate Ragnar’s shield or breeches. He stuck his spear through the serpent’s heart and cut off its head. Thora and Ragnar were then married.

According to the Tale of Ragnar’s Sons (Ragnarssona þáttr), Thora and Ragnar had two sons, Eiríkr and Agnar

Aslaug , according to the 13th-century Tale of Ragnar Lodbrok, Aslaug was the daughter of Sigurd and the shieldmaiden Brynhildr, but was raised by Brynhildr’s foster father Heimer. At the deaths of Sigurd and Brynhildr, Heimer was concerned about Aslaug’s security, so he made a harp large enough to hide the girl. He then traveled as a poor harp player carrying the harp containing the girl.

They arrived at Spangereid at Lindesnes in Norway, where they stayed for the night in the house of the peasants Áke and Grima. Áke believed the harp contained valuable items and told his wife Grima. Grima then convinced him to murder Heimer as he was sleeping. However, when they broke the harp open, they discovered a little girl, whom they raised as their own, calling her Kráka (“Crow”). In order to hide her beauty, they rubbed her in tar and dressed her in a long hood.

However, once as she was bathing, she was discovered by some of the men of the legendary king Ragnar Lodbrok. Entranced by Kráka’s beauty, they allowed the bread they were baking to burn when Ragnar inquired about this mishap, they told him about the girl. Ragnar then sent for her, but in order to test her wits, he commanded her to arrive neither dressed nor undressed, neither fasting nor eating, and neither alone nor in company. Kráka arrived dressed in a net, biting an onion, and with only a dog as a companion. Impressed by her ingenuity and finding her a wise companion, Ragnar proposed marriage to her, which she refused until he had accomplished his mission in Norway. She gave him five sons: Ivar the Boneless Björn Ironside Hvitserk Rognvald and Sigurd Snake-in-the-Eye.

Sons of Ragnar, an intregal part of history

Ragnar is said to have up to eleven sons. However, the three sons that were an integral part of history (not sagas) were Halfdan , Inwaer (Ivar the Boneless) , and Hubba (Ubbe) . These three brothers, according to medieval sources, led a army know as the “ Great Heathen Army, ” in an invasion against the English at East Anglia in 865. It is said that they sought to avenge their fathers death who had been captured executed earlier by King Aella of Northumbria .


(Spoilers) Ragnar

Do you think the show will end with his death or do you think it will keep going on without him?

Well. technically, in the final Saga written about him, he dies quite painfully. His parting words were something to the tune of "My how the young pigs would squeal if they knew the suffering of the old boar". The "pigs", being a non-insulting euphemism for his sons.

Remember that snake pit King Aella had dug? I'll let you draw the conclusions from there. I don't however, think that the show will abruptly end with his death. I think that it will start a timer of sorts though. Heɽ most likely die in a mid season finale, and the rest of the season would be wrapped up with revenge and blood.

Aella says that, not Ragnar

The show surely will go on. The sons have even more awesome tales to tell if I remember correctly.

Like giving Aella a blood eagle for what he does to Ragnar.

Michael Hirst said the original plan for Season 1 was to kill off Ragnar and have Season 2 time-jump and be about his children carrying on his legacy and he said that he thinks Vikings can definitely carry on without Ragnar and have future seasons be about his sons and their journeys because much like their dad, they too have accomplished a lot and he really wants to do that. My personal opinion is that.. if Ragnar doesn't die in S3, he will in S4.

According to the "Death Song of Ragnar Lothbrok" (Krákumál), Ragnar's final words were: "The days of my life are ended. I laugh as I die."

A popular translation of the whole piece is:

It gladdens me to know that Balder's father [Odin] makes ready the benches for a banquet. Soon we shall be drinking ale from the curved horns. The champion who comes into Odin’s dwelling does not lament his death. I shall not enter his hall with words of fear upon my lips. The Æsir will welcome me. Death comes without lamenting. Eager am I to depart. The Dísir summon me home, those whom Odin sends for me from the halls of the Lord of Hosts. Gladly shall I drink ale in the high-seat with the Æsir. The days of my life are ended. I laugh as I die.

The actual passage goes a bit more like this:

We hewed with the brand! Great was our courage when fierce Herraudr, 'mid his winged steeds, died. No jarl more fearless sent his framing coursers oɾr the main His stout heart drove him, fearless, by the sea-fowls' haunt. We hewed with the brand! The brand bit sore at Scarpa-reef Scarborough , the sword flew from its sheath, Crimson the borders of our moon-shields when King Raven died Loud roared the spear on Ulla's field, as low lay Eystan the King. We hewed with the brand! Oɾr us was fated Herthiof to win a mighty victory, There fell my son, bold Rognvald, before the host of spears. His bow, unerring, shot in Sudorey Hebrides its last fatal bolt. We hewed with the brand! In Ireland King Marstan let not the she-wolf nor the eagle starve. A sacrifice he made at Wetherford Waterford , for the steel-thorn issuing from its sheath, Pierced to the heart of Ragnar, fearless son of mine. We hewed with the brand! South we played at war with three kings, the blood of the Irish dyed the sea, Then stormed we to the sword-play at the river-mouth of Anglesey, No kissing of a girl was it to fight as we fought there. We hewed with the brand! Little did I wot that at the hands of Ella my death should come! Yet what boots it? None can withstand his fate and well is it To quaff the mead in skull-boughs drinking horns in the great hall of Odin. We hewed with the brand! Before cold death does no brave man quail no thought of fear have I. Soon with the battle wake when Aslaug's sons their bitter blades unsheath, Soon will they learn the manner of my death, stout hearts of their brave mother! We hewed with the brand! My life is well-nigh oɾr sharp is the pang that the serpent gives. Goinn the Snake, nests deep in my heart. No more will my children rest Great wrath will be theirs at the undoing of their sire. We hewed with the brand! Full gladly do I go! See the Valkyrjar fresh from Odin's halls! High-seated among heroes shall I quaff the yellow-mead. The Aesir welcome me. Laughing gladly do I die!

In any event, the passage was written some three or four centuries after Ragnar's death, but it's a pretty awesome tradition in any form.


Assista o vídeo: A Morte de Ragnar Lothbrok Dublado HD Vikings (Agosto 2022).