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Primeiros anos de Henry Tudor

Primeiros anos de Henry Tudor



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Henry Tudor, o segundo filho de Edmund Tudor, Conde de Richmond e Margaret Beaufort, nasceu no Castelo de Pembroke em 28 de janeiro de 1457. Margaret era bisneta de John de Gaunt. (1)

Como Alison Weir apontou: "Margaret Beaufort, era seu (Henry Tudor) único elo de sangue com os Plantagents, e ela própria descendia dos bastardos nascidos de John de Gaunt, duque de Lancaster, quarto filho de Eduardo III, e sua amante Katherine Swynford. Essas crianças, todas de sobrenome Beaufort, foram legitimadas pelo estatuto de Ricardo II em 1397, depois que Gaunt se casou com sua mãe; no entanto, dez anos depois, Henrique IV, confirmando isso, acrescentou um cavaleiro ao estatuto que proibia o Beauforts e seus herdeiros de herdar a coroa. " (2)

O pai de Henry já estava morto há quase três meses quando ele nasceu. Henry Tudor logo foi separado de sua mãe quando Eduardo IV decidiu que queria que ele morasse com Lord William Herbert, seu principal apoiador no País de Gales. Ele foi criado no Castelo Raglan, com a intenção de casá-lo com sua filha mais velha. Esses planos chegaram ao fim quando Herbert foi executado após a Batalha de Edgecote Moor em 26 de julho de 1469. (3)

Henry agora foi morar com seu tio, Jasper Tudor, o conde restaurado de Pembroke. Na Batalha de Tewkesbury em 4 de maio de 1471, Margarida de Anjou foi capturada e seu filho de treze anos, Eduardo de Westminster, morto. Eduardo IV enviou Roger Vaughan para prender Henry e Jasper. Vaughan foi capturado e executado e os dois homens escaparam para Tenby e pegaram um navio, rumo à França, mas pousando na Bretanha no final do mês, após uma viagem tempestuosa. Francisco II, duque da Bretanha, ofereceu-lhes asilo, mas sob a pressão diplomática de Eduardo, isso se transformou em prisão domiciliar em uma sucessão de castelos e palácios. (4)


História de Shakespeare

No primeiro fólio, as peças de William Shakespeare foram agrupadas em três categorias: comédias, histórias e tragédias. As histórias - junto com as dos dramaturgos renascentistas contemporâneos - ajudam a definir o gênero das peças de história. [1] As histórias de Shakespeare são biografias de reis ingleses dos quatro séculos anteriores e incluem os autônomos Rei joão, Edward III e Henry VIII bem como uma sequência contínua de oito jogos. Estes últimos são considerados compostos em dois ciclos. A chamada primeira tetralogia, aparentemente escrita no início de 1590, cobre a saga da Guerra das Rosas e inclui Henry VI, partes I, II & amp III e Ricardo III. A segunda tetralogia, concluída em 1599 e incluindo Richard II, Henry IV, partes I & amp II e Henry V, é freqüentemente chamado de Henriad depois de seu protagonista Príncipe Hal, o futuro Henry V.

As classificações do fólio não são isentas de problemas. Além de propor outras categorias como romances e peças-problema, muitos estudos modernos tratam as histórias juntamente com as tragédias que apresentam personagens históricos. Esses incluem Macbeth, situado em meados do século 11 durante os reinados de Duncan I da Escócia e Eduardo, o Confessor e o lendário Rei Lear e também as peças romanas Coriolanus, Júlio César, e Antônio e Cleópatra.


Henry Tudor recruta soldados para seu confronto com o rei Ricardo III

Na Batalha de Tewkesbury em 4 de maio de 1471, os Yorkistas obtiveram uma grande vitória contra os Lancastrianos. Eduardo, Príncipe de Gales, filho de Henrique VI e Margarida de Anjou foi morto durante a batalha e a Rainha Margarida foi capturada. Eduardo IV foi rei novamente e em 21 de maio Henrique VI morreu na Torre de Londres, provavelmente por ordem do rei Eduardo. Jasper Tudor estava abrindo caminho para se encontrar com as forças de Lancastrian, mas por qualquer motivo, não conseguiu e perdeu a batalha. Ele sabia que seria um alvo do rei Eduardo e sua vida estava em perigo. Então ele se preparou para fugir do país.

Outra consequência da batalha foi a deserção da causa Lancastriana por Margaret Beaufort e seu marido Thomas Lord Stanley (Margaret casou-se com ele em 1472 depois que seu marido Henry Stafford morreu em outubro de 1471). O filho de quatorze anos de Margaret, Henry Tudor, estava com seu tio Jasper. Como sua mãe e seu marido escolheram um lado, ele decidiu se juntar ao tio no exílio. Henry não veria sua mãe pelos próximos quatorze anos.

Henry e Jasper desembarcaram na Bretanha e foram os hóspedes / prisioneiros do duque Francis II. Francisco usou os dois homens como um peão diplomático nas negociações com o rei Eduardo em um esforço para manter sua independência da França. Os dois homens passaram um tempo em vários castelos na Bretanha, às vezes juntos e às vezes separados. Em vários momentos, Henrique correu o risco de ser enviado de volta à Inglaterra, mas conseguiu evitar a captura. Durante o reinado de Eduardo IV, Margaret Beaufort pressionou o rei para permitir que seu filho voltasse e reivindicasse seu condado de Richmond. Em abril de 1483, ela realmente teve a aprovação do rei Eduardo para o retorno de Henrique à Inglaterra, mas Eduardo morreu inesperadamente.

O irmão de Eduardo, Ricardo Duque de Gloucester, usurpou o trono do filho de Eduardo, o Rei Eduardo V. A partir daquele momento, houve conspirações e rebeliões contra seu governo. Nesse ponto, Henry Tudor não era considerado um candidato sério ao trono. Mas quando o rei Eduardo V e seu irmão Ricardo Duque de York desapareceram da Torre de Londres em algum momento do outono de 1483, a situação na Inglaterra mudou dramaticamente. O duque de Buckingham, o antigo aliado mais próximo de Ricardo III, desertou de sua causa e planejou uma rebelião com outros, incluindo Henry Tudor. Mas a rebelião não teve sucesso e Henry nunca chegou à Inglaterra devido ao mau tempo no mar.

No Natal, na catedral de Rennes, na Bretanha, Henry Tudor jurou se casar com a filha mais velha de Eduardo IV, Elizabeth de York, para finalmente unir as casas de Lancaster e York. Este juramento deixou clara sua intenção de tomar o trono de Ricardo III e muitos homens começaram a se juntar à causa de Henrique. Ricardo negociou um acordo com o ducado da Bretanha por meio do qual Henrique seria enviado de volta à Inglaterra e certamente seria executado no inverno de 1484. Henrique conseguiu escapar ousadamente para a corte do rei francês Carlos VIII. Carlos e sua regente interina, sua irmã Anne de Beaujeu, foram pró-ativos em apoiar a oferta de Henrique de assumir o trono da Inglaterra. A preparação, o recrutamento e a arrecadação de fundos começaram.

Durante esses meses tensos, Henry escreveu várias cartas em um esforço para atrair homens para sua causa. Muitas dessas cartas foram destruídas, mas há uma cópia de uma delas que sobreviveu. Não tem data e não tem destinatário específico. É assim que se lê:

“Certo, bons amigos fiéis, veneráveis ​​e honrados, eu os saúdo bem. Tendo sido dada a compreensão de seu bom devoir e súplica para avançar para a promoção de minha legítima reivindicação, herança devida e linear daquela coroa e para a justa privação daquele homicídio e tirano antinatural que agora injustamente exerce domínio sobre você, eu lhe dou entenda que nenhum coração cristão pode estar mais cheio de alegria e alegria do que o meu coração, seu pobre amigo exilado, que irá, no instante de sua publicidade segura, que poder você preparará e que capitães e líderes você poderá conduzir, esteja preparado para passar pelo mar com a força que meus amigos aqui estão preparando para mim. E se eu tiver a velocidade e o sucesso que desejo, de acordo com o seu desejo, estarei sempre ansioso para lembrar e retribuir totalmente esta sua grande e comovente bondade amorosa em minha justa briga. Dado sob nosso selo H
Rogo-lhe que dê crédito ao mensageiro de que ele vai transmitir a você. "

No início de dezembro, Richard respondeu aos apelos de Henry com uma proclamação contra Henry, Jasper e muitos dos rebeldes mais importantes. Ele também começou a recrutar homens e a colocar todo o país em alerta para a invasão que se aproximava. Henry tinha tudo no lugar e seus navios partiram de Honfleur em 1º de agosto de 1485, chegando a Milford Haven no País de Gales em 8 de agosto. Ele então começou a se mover para o nordeste para enfrentar Ricardo na batalha, recrutando e dando as boas-vindas a homens para sua causa enquanto ele marchava .

A marcha de Henry Tudor (mais tarde Henry VII) e Rhys ap Thomas através do País de Gales, para o campo de Bosworth (Imagem de Llywelyn2000 do Wikimedia Commons)

Henrique pediu aos homens de Gales que viessem em seu auxílio, afirmando que sua intenção não era apenas restaurar a Inglaterra ao seu antigo estado, mas também o principado de Gales. Seu objetivo era restabelecer os antigos direitos do País de Gales como eram antes da rebelião de Owen Glendower em 1400. Uma cópia da carta de Henry para John ap Maredudd sobreviveu e diz:

“Certo fiel e bem amado, nós os saudamos bem. E onde é assim que com a ajuda de Deus Todo-Poderoso, a assistência de nossos amigos amorosos e súditos verdadeiros, e a grande confiança que temos para com os nobres e comuns deste nosso principado de Gales, entraremos no mesmo, com o propósito pela ajuda acima ensaiada com toda pressa possível descer ao nosso reino da Inglaterra não apenas para a adepção [recuperação] da coroa para nós do direito pertencente, mas também para a opressão daquele odioso tirano Ricardo, falecido duque de Gloucester, usurpador de nosso dito direito, e além disso, para reduzir também nosso dito reino da Inglaterra em sua antiga propriedade, honra e prosperidade, como este nosso dito principado de Gales, e o povo do mesmo às suas primeiras [originais] liberdades, entregando o de tal miseráveis ​​servidões, já que há muito tempo permanecem. Desejamos e oramos a você e, sob sua lealdade, estritamente acusamos e ordenamos que, imediatamente após a visão disso, com todo o poder que possais tornar defensivamente armado para o A guerra, vocês se dirigem a nós sem qualquer demora no caminho, até o tempo em que estejamos conosco, onde quer que estejamos em nosso auxílio para o efeito acima ensaiado, onde nos farão, a tempo, virmos a ser seu bem singular Senhor, e que não falhes nisso, pois evitarás nosso doloroso descontentamento e responderás por tua conta e risco. Dado sob nosso selo ... ”

Não se sabe se John ap Maredudd respondeu ao chamado de Henry, mas muitos outros galeses o fizeram. A marcha desimpedida de Henrique durou até 20 de agosto, quando seu exército estava nas proximidades das tropas de Ricardo perto do Campo de Bosworth. A batalha começou em 22 de agosto. Mesmo que o exército de Henrique fosse superado em número pelo de Ricardo, a batalha foi uma vitória para ele quando Ricardo foi morto enquanto tentava bravamente alcançar Henrique e matá-lo. Henry Tudor era agora o rei Henry VII. Ele se casou com a filha mais velha do rei Eduardo IV, Elizabeth, unindo as casas de Lancaster e York e uma nova dinastia de reis ingleses começou que duraria até a morte da rainha Elizabeth I em 1603. Muitos dos homens que atenderam ao chamado de Henrique foram ricamente recompensados ​​pelos novos Rei.


HARRY DA INGLATERRA - Parte I

A graça do rei é apenas um homem fraco e doente, provavelmente não é um homem de vida longa. Não faz muito tempo que ele adoeceu e estava em sua mansão em Wanstead. Naquela época, vários grandes personagens discutiam entre si a forma das coisas que poderiam ocorrer caso sua graça deixasse esta vida. Alguns deles falaram de meu senhor de Buckingham, dizendo que ele era um homem nobre e seria um governante real. Outros falaram de Edmund de la Pole. Mas nenhum deles falou do Príncipe de Gales.

Em algum momento de 1504 ou 1505, um grupo de servos reais, na relativa segurança do porto continental de Calais, na Inglaterra, especulou sobre o futuro de seu país. Essa fofoca política refletia duas suposições: o atual regime de Henrique VII era imensamente impopular e seria sucedido por qualquer rival da casa de Tudor que pudesse comandar um grande número de seguidores entre os principais magnatas do reino. O fato de que a nova dinastia repeliu rebeliões e golpes e sobreviveu por mais um século, apesar de depender para sua sobrevivência de um menor real e duas mulheres reais, diz muito sobre a tenacidade política e perspicácia da maior casa reinante da Inglaterra. Também reflete a preocupação da maioria dos assuntos da coroa com estabilidade e continuidade. O que quer que os nobres intrigantes possam ter pensado nos anos crepusculares do reinado de Henrique VII, o povo em geral não tinha gosto por um retorno à carnificina e deslocamento da Guerra das Rosas.

O menino que se tornaria Henrique VIII seria o monarca mais absoluto que a Inglaterra já experimentou e presidiria às mudanças fundamentais e de longo alcance na vida cultural, política e econômica da nação. É tentador atribuir tudo isso à sua força de caráter, mas a verdade é mais complexa. Tem a ver com o impacto das idéias revolucionárias sobre as quais o rei não tinha controle e com uma sucessão de servos reais talentosos, capazes não apenas de dar a Henrique o que ele queria, mas o que eles queriam que ele quisesse. Também reflete a passividade de um povo que não deseja se envolver em uma grande rebelião até que seja levado além da resistência. No entanto, no início do século dezesseis, aqueles que supostamente sabiam poderiam descartar a possibilidade de o jovem Harry ter sucesso ou manter sua posse da coroa. Para começar a entender o reinado de Henrique VIII, nós também devemos eliminar de nossas mentes o que sabemos sobre a Inglaterra da Renascença e da Reforma, as convoluções matrimoniais da vida do rei, os rituais reais pródigos, a transferência de riqueza eclesiástica e poder para a coroa e o surgimento de uma nova classe de cavalheiros e empresários ricos em terras, que eram parceiros na mudança, mas desenvolviam constantemente uma consciência de seus próprios interesses corporativos. Devemos nos submeter ao condicionamento mental dos contemporâneos de Henry. Eles só podiam prever o futuro em termos do passado.

No início do século XVI, havia muito boas razões para descontar a ascensão ao trono do único filho sobrevivente de Henrique VII, nascido em 1491. Duas vezes durante os 100 anos anteriores a coroa havia passado para um menor e em ambas as ocasiões os resultados foram foi desastroso. Henrique V fora sucedido por Henrique VI, um menino de nove meses que se tornou o peão de facções aristocráticas e foi assassinado, após um reinado tão caótico quanto longo, em 1471. Doze anos depois, o usurpador, Eduardo IV, morreu e legou seu reino ao príncipe Eduardo, de 12 anos. O novo rei e seu irmão foram removidos por seu tio, Ricardo de Gloucester, que foi movido não apenas por sua própria ambição, mas pela convicção de que a Inglaterra nunca poderia estar segura sob o governo de um menor. Enquanto os dinamizadores da Inglaterra gótica esperavam a morte de Henrique VII, parecia haver todos os motivos para supor que o futuro estaria em suas próprias mãos conspiradoras e em um líder militar eficaz de sua própria escolha. O rei desapontou suas esperanças. Seu último serviço prestado à Inglaterra foi a saída de sua vida até que o jovem Harry de Gales pudesse completar dezoito anos. A coroa passou sem desafio ao herdeiro legítimo em meio a demonstrações de alegria selvagem. A dinastia estava segura - por enquanto.

Nossa história, no entanto, deve começar mais para trás no tempo. Poucos meses antes de Colombo ter avistado pela primeira vez as Américas e os mouros sobreviventes, sua última visão da Espanha antes de ser expulso por Ferdinand e Isabella, o pequeno Henry Tudor entrou no mundo em 28 de junho de 1491 no palácio de Greenwich, rio abaixo do fétido ares de verão da capital para onde Elizabeth de York recorreu com suas damas para seu descanso. O processo de nascimento sempre foi perigoso, mas a rainha era robusta e já havia dado à luz com segurança um menino (Arthur, 1486) e uma menina (Margaret, 1489). No entanto, foi um alívio para o rei saber que ele tinha outro filho saudável, um herdeiro "sobressalente". A família real continuou a crescer. Nos anos seguintes, Henry teve três irmãos mais novos, embora apenas um, Mary (1496), tenha sobrevivido à infância. Pelos padrões da época, era uma ninhada de bom tamanho, particularmente valiosa para o rei Henrique porque lhe permitiu garantir sua posição negociando uma série de casamentos com outras casas reais. A infância era curta naquela época. Muito antes da puberdade, os jovens príncipes e princesas se acostumaram à ideia de que estavam destinados à separação e dispersão em várias cortes europeias.

O pouco que podemos saber sobre a educação dos filhos reais sugere que a figura dominante em seu mundo fechado era sua avó. Lady Margaret Beaufort era uma femme formidável em todos os sentidos. Conspiradora, ambiciosa e obstinada, a mãe do rei foi uma das principais agentes na aquisição do trono por Henrique VII. Desde muito jovem ela foi apanhada no jogo sinistro de cobras dinásticas e escadas. Por ser descendente de Eduardo III, ela foi casada por Henrique VI com seu meio-irmão, Edmund Tudor, com a única intenção de produzir mais apoiadores para a causa lancastriana. Eduardo não perdeu tempo em engravidar sua jovem noiva por um ato que deve ter sido muito próximo de um estupro. Isso deixou Margaret incapaz de ter mais filhos, mas ela tinha um filho (o futuro Henrique VII) e os dois sempre seriam muito próximos. O vínculo era ainda mais forte porque Henry nunca conheceu seu pai, que morreu de peste antes de ele nascer. Em 1471, quando Henrique tinha treze anos, o Yorkista Eduardo IV confirmou sua conquista do trono matando Henrique VI. O jovem Tudor agora se tornava um rival teórico e Margaret organizou sua fuga apressada pelo Canal da Mancha. Enquanto Henrique passou os quatorze anos seguintes no asilo na Bretanha, sua mãe negociou, planejou e planejou obter o favor real que permitiria seu retorno. No entanto, a possibilidade de fazer uma oferta pela coroa nunca esteve longe de seus pensamentos e quando a usurpação de Ricardo III criou uma reação entre muitos da nobreza, ela agarrou a oportunidade de colocar seu filho à frente de uma rebelião. Sua conspiração era tão audaciosa quanto enérgica. Seus agentes corriam secretamente de um lado para outro entre magnatas Yorkistas insatisfeitos, prometendo não uma aquisição Lancastriana, mas a união das casas rivais pelo casamento de seu filho com a filha de Eduardo IV, Elizabeth. Enquanto isso, outros conspiradores barganharam com os governantes da França e da Bretanha pelo fornecimento de homens e armas. O resultado da rebelião não foi de forma alguma uma conclusão precipitada e houve uma série de falsos começos para a campanha antes de Henry Tudor pousar em segurança em Milford Haven em agosto de 1485. Sua vitória final em Bosworth teve tanto a ver com deserções do rei classifica como com as realizações do exército vira-lata de Henrique.

Era inevitável que Margaret Beaufort exercesse considerável influência no novo regime. Henry confiou muito nos conselhos de sua mãe e ela gozou de maior destaque do que a nova esposa de Henry, Elizabeth de York. Ela assumiu o brasão real, assinou documentos ‘Margaret R.’ e apareceu em rituais da corte ao lado do rei. Ela mantinha uma casa grande e magnificamente equipada, nem um pouco menos impressionante do que a de seu filho. Ela usava joias suntuosas e vestidos lindamente cortados, embora quase sempre estes fossem de corte simples e em preto puro. O retrato dela no Christ’s College, um dos dois centros de aprendizagem que ela fundou em Cambridge, revela uma mulher austera em um hábito de freira, lendo um livro devocional.

Não há contradição aqui. Margaret conseguiu combinar pompa e poder mundanos com devoção religiosa genuína. Embora nunca tenha entrado para um convento, separou-se do terceiro marido para organizar seu cotidiano em torno de um ritual de oração e adoração. Ela doou casas religiosas antigas, mas estava interessada em desenvolvimentos modernos em teologia e arte religiosa. E tecnologia: ela era a principal patrocinadora da nova e revolucionária indústria de impressão. Ela encomendou várias obras devocionais das impressoras de William Caxton e Wynkyn de Worde e comprou cópias como presente para amigos e protegidos.

O mais devoto Rei David. . .disse o povo de Israel a louvar a Deus de todo o coração e com vozes cheias de melodia para abençoá-lo e louvá-lo todos os dias. Nesse caso, grande devoção foi usada. . .que reverência e devoção devo agora ser preservada por mim e todos os cristãos durante a ministração do sacramento.

Estas palavras do clássico devocional do início do século XV, The Imitation of Christ por Thomas à Kempis, foram traduzidas pessoalmente por Margaret para a primeira edição em inglês e não é surpresa saber que ela seguiu o conselho do escritor. A equipe de sua capela rivalizava com a do rei em números e musicalidade e foi um importante centro para o desenvolvimento da polifonia inglesa. Como uma viúva na casa dos cinquenta anos que experimentou - e sobreviveu - muitas das mudanças e chances de uma idade conturbada, Margaret era uma velha inspiradora que exercia uma imensa autoridade política e moral. Segundo o embaixador espanhol, ela dominava a nora e, se Elizabeth foi dominada pela mulher mais velha, os jovens príncipes e princesas devem ter ficado ainda mais. Eles foram criados em mansões reais ao sul do Tamisa - Eltham, Greenwich e Richmond - e Margaret podia facilmente visitá-los de sua residência em Woking ou de sua mansão à beira-rio de Coldharbour, perto da Ponte de Londres. A avó que encontraram naqueles primeiros anos era uma disciplinadora severa, com ideias firmes sobre tudo e todos - especialmente educação e religião.

O confessor da rainha-mãe e conselheiro mais próximo em assuntos acadêmicos e espirituais foi John Fisher, vice-reitor da Universidade de Cambridge e um dos pensadores mais avançados da época. Ele pertencia ao círculo de conhecedores internacionais que os tradicionalistas desprezavam como defensores da moda do 'Novo Aprendizado' porque haviam absorvido a paixão renascentista pela erudição clássica e os textos originais em grego e hebraico da Bíblia em vez de se contentarem com a regurgitação consagrada pelo tempo de interpretações patrísticas aceitas. Margaret naturalmente recorreu a Fisher quando se tratou de selecionar os homens que deveriam ser empregados como tutores para as crianças reais. Cada um dos irmãos foi nomeado seu próprio pessoal doméstico e a vanguarda acadêmica teve destaque entre os nomeados. O homem nomeado tutor do príncipe Henry por volta de 1496 foi o notável poeta e estudioso John Skelton. Ele havia sido recentemente nomeado poeta laureado em Cambridge e provavelmente pertencia ao círculo de Fisher. Skelton tinha trinta e poucos anos e, se não era exatamente um "jovem zangado", certamente era muito intenso. Sua seriedade religiosa e moral se manifestou em sua devoção pessoal (ele assumiu as ordens sagradas em 1498), em livros pedagógicos como o Boke how Men Shulde Fle Synne e também em versos satíricos. Em 1499 ele usou sua pena para invectivas contra a hipocrisia da casa real em O Bouge da Corte, em que descreveu um sonho alegórico em que certos personagens representando cortesãos estabelecidos se ofereciam para guiá-lo no funcionamento da corte:

O primeiro foi Duplicidade, cheio de elogios,

Com fábulas falsas, isso poderia simular uma história.

A segunda foi a suspeita de que diariamente

Julgou mal cada homem, com rosto mortal e pálido,

E Enganador, que bem poderia começar uma briga,

Com outros quatro de sua afinidade:

Desdém, tumulto, dissimulação, sutileza.

Parece que Skelton estava determinado a tornar seu jovem pupilo ciente da irrealidade e dos falsos valores do pequeno mundo fechado no qual ele estava crescendo. O tutor certamente levava seu trabalho muito a sério. Sabemos de vários tratados escritos por ele sobre assuntos, como gramática e teoria do governo, que teriam sido úteis para a educação de um príncipe.

A rainha, a rainha-mãe e o rei estavam todos preocupados em ver a próxima geração de Tudors criada não apenas pelos melhores intelectos da época, mas também por homens que estavam na vanguarda da investigação intelectual. Foi, talvez, uma preocupação inspirada pelo desejo de estabelecer a família como uma dinastia dinâmica, olhando para o futuro, não para o passado. Henrique VII havia passado a maior parte de seus anos de formação no continente entre homens e mulheres cultos influenciados pelos ares renascentistas que sopravam nos Alpes. Ele sabia muito bem que a Inglaterra era considerada um atraso cultural e fazia questão de trazer para seu reino os melhores artistas e artesãos que pudessem ser induzidos a trabalhar na terra das neblinas e dos humores úmidos. Entre os membros da comitiva do Príncipe Henry estava William Blount, Barão Mountjoy, um jovem erudito amigo de Fisher e também de um advogado de Londres que estava começando a criar um nome para si mesmo chamado Thomas More. Blount fez uma peregrinação intelectual a Paris para sentar-se aos pés do decano do movimento de vanguarda, o grande estudioso holandês Desiderius Erasmus, e os dois tornaram-se amigos íntimos. Quando Erasmo chegou para visitar seu aluno em 1499, Mountjoy providenciou para que o grande erudito fosse recebido pelos filhos reais. Foi assim que Erasmus e More fizeram a breve viagem da casa de Mountjoy ao Palácio de Eltham. O relato de Erasmus sobre a visita, escrito muitos anos depois, nos dá a única imagem verbal que temos de Henrique VIII quando criança. Arthur não estava presente, pois já havia deixado o berçário para começar seu treinamento sério como futuro rei. Henry, de oito anos, assumiu o papel de anfitrião, cumprimentando os visitantes e mantendo-os em uma conversa autoconfiante. Ele graciosamente recebeu uma homenagem em latim que More havia cuidadosamente composto para a ocasião e perguntou se a celebridade internacional visitante poderia ter uma oferta semelhante para ele. Isso pegou Erasmus nas pressas, pois ele não havia pensado em se munir de um presente adequado. Só depois de voltar para a casa de Mountjoy e queimar o óleo da meia-noite ele foi capaz de corrigir a omissão. De acordo com Erasmo, Henrique já tinha um bom domínio do latim e do francês (as línguas da erudição e da diplomacia) e a esses ele acrescentou alguma facilidade em espanhol e italiano.

No entanto, Henry nunca abraçou totalmente o humanismo da moda. As influências tradicionais eram tão fortes quanto desafiar novas ideias e a parte favorita de seu currículo educacional era história - ou o que, então, passou por história. Era uma mistura de romance cortês, histórias morais e propaganda. A Europa estava nas garras de uma revolução na tecnologia da informação. A invenção da imprensa, com seu potencial ilimitado para a instrução de crianças em famílias abastadas, levantou a questão de quais textos deveriam ser apresentados a elas. Ninguém duvidava do que apontava o autor de O livro do cavaleiro da Torre, publicado por Caxton em 1484: que o passado era um repositório de histórias de aperfeiçoamento a partir das quais os jovens podiam aprender a se conduzir no presente. O apelo imediato de tais contos em sala de aula, no entanto, foi o heroísmo ao estilo do papel do menino, elogiado em relatos de bravura de cavaleiros. O príncipe Henrique, como muitos filhos de ascendência real e nobre, foi criado nas aventuras cavalheirescas registradas nas Crônicas de Jean Froissart, em Le Morte Darthur de Sir Thomas Malory (publicado em inglês por Caxton em 1485) e uma grande quantidade de outros livros e manuscritos da mesmo gênero. Eles glorificavam o combate pessoal e a guerra justa enquanto exaltavam o puro código de honra que supostamente inspirava todos os verdadeiros cavaleiros. Essas histórias receberam ilustrações vívidas da vida real nos feitos de armas realizados nas "listas", os recintos onde os torneios eram realizados.

Aqui, o jovem príncipe poderia se emocionar com o espetáculo glorioso de cavaleiros com trajes heráldicos lançando suas lanças nos escudos uns dos outros e desfrutar da atmosfera criada por multidões aplaudindo, o choque de aço e o relincho dos cavalos. Henry ansiava pelo dia em que pudesse assumir seu lugar como herói da justa e do campo de batalha. Assim que ele conseguiu lidar com pequenas espadas e arcos, ele começou a praticar para aquele dia.

Aprender as artes marciais entrelaçou-se completamente com a educação religiosa e moral do príncipe. O negócio de derrubar cabeças, sitiar castelos, queimar vilas e devastar terras agrícolas era considerado altamente recomendável se a causa pela qual o cavaleiro estava lutando fosse justa e sagrada, e enquanto sua própria vida fosse pura. Em Le Morte Darthur, Lancelot rejeita a tentação sexual que mancharia sua honra de cavaleiro:

Recusarei meu prazer com os amantes: em primeiro lugar por temor a Deus, pois o cavaleiro que é aventureiro não deve ser adúltero nem lascivo, pois então não será feliz nem afortunado nas guerras. Ou ele será vencido por um cavaleiro mais simples do que ele mesmo ou, por azar e a maldição sobre ele, matará homens melhores do que ele. E assim quem recorre a amantes ficará infeliz e tudo sobre eles será infeliz.

As consequências desastrosas da ligação subsequente de Lancelot com Guinevere, é claro, deixam claro a moral.

Este código de honra era subscrito por todos os jovens nobres e cavalheiros, mas para o filho do rei da Inglaterra tinha um peso maior, pois ele não descendia diretamente do rei-herói que presidia a Távola Redonda? Quando Henrique VII garantiu que seu primogênito fosse trazido ao mundo em Winchester, a antiga capital da Inglaterra, e batizado com o nome incomum de 'Arthur', esses foram atos de propaganda e partes de um plano geral para usar todos os meios possíveis para dar a seu regime credibilidade. Ele estava deliberadamente vinculando sua dinastia à lenda antiga e à genealogia proposta por Geoffrey de Monmouth, o cronista do século XII em sua Historia Regum Britanniae. Geoffrey afirmou ter descoberto fontes antigas que ligavam os governantes da Inglaterra não apenas ao Rei Arthur, mas também a fugitivos da queda de Tróia. Os leitores dos séculos XV e XVI não tinham um senso preciso de cronologia. 'História' era para eles uma tapeçaria radiante na qual reis, santos, cavaleiros, mágicos e heróis, todos tinham seus painéis interligados.

Henrique VII estava determinado a tecer sua família nesse tecido imponente. Ele encarregou o estudioso italiano, Polydore Vergil, de escrever uma história atualizada da Inglaterra, que seria muito mais uma narrativa com um toque Tudor. O príncipe Henry foi criado para se ver como o herdeiro dessa mescla de bobagens românticas, militaristas, idealizadas e politizadas. Se ele tinha um herói pessoal favorito, era Henrique V, o rei-guerreiro cujas espetaculares façanhas militares ainda eram celebradas em lendas e baladas. Suas campanhas cruzando o Canal da Mancha acrescentaram a Normandia e grande parte do norte da França à posse continental da Gasconha no sudoeste da Inglaterra. Com sua morte em 1422, aproximadamente um terço do que hoje chamamos de "França" devia lealdade à coroa inglesa e ele foi nomeado herdeiro do trono francês. Isso foi antes de a classe guerreira da Inglaterra se dividir em facções e começar a virar suas espadas uns contra os outros. Em 1453, tudo estava perdido, exceto Calais. Desde então, o mapa político da Europa mais próxima mudou consideravelmente. Louis XI (1423–83) united most of the independent duchies west of the Rhine by a combination of war and diplomacy and made of France a centralized monarchy. The union of Aragon and Castile and the expulsion of the Moors turned Spain into a formidable state. It was the relationship between these two nations which would determine the shape of European politics throughout the ensuing century and introduce the concept of the ‘balance of power’. England had ceased to be a major player. For Prince Henry, however, Anglo-French rivalry was a matter of unfinished business and the relegation of England to the status of second-rate nation, a mere spectator in the Habsburg-Valois struggle, was not to be borne. From an early age he dreamed of emulating the exploits of his illustrious ancestors.

As well as the time he spent at his lessons, Henry’s days were passed in the company of two groups of people, his female relatives and his socii studiorum. The latter were the sons of noble parents who shared the prince’s classroom and leisure hours. They were selected as suitable companions and as a means of tying their families more securely to the Tudor regime. It was with this peer group that Henry took exercise – in the tennis court, in the butts, in the hunting field and in the tiltyard. These recreational activities developed and expressed his macho self-image and his intensely competitive nature, which were also reinforced by the fact that he spent much of his time in a household of women in which he was the leading male figure. He was much in the company of his admiring mother and his sisters and always in the background was the dominatrix, Lady Margaret. Young Henry never really had a male role model. He saw little of his father and his elder brother. Arthur would always remain a shadowy figure. Francis Bacon, writing in the early seventeenth century, asserted that Henry VII’s heir was ‘strong and able’. The fact that, by his early teens, he had received various important offices and that plans for his marriage were pursued with vigour may suggest that there was no long-standing concern about his health. On the other hand, portraits of the prince show him with the rather pinched features of his father and other Lancastrians. His tutors reported that he was a studious boy and an apt learner. (We might be tempted to respond, ‘They would, wouldn’t they?’) There are no references to his appearing in the tiltyard or participating in athletic exercises apart from archery. This evidence – such as it is – may support the generally accepted opinion that Arthur was a sickly child. In any case, his contact with the brother who was five years his junior was limited. Arthur had his own household and, as the heir, received a distinctive upbringing.

It is interesting, and not entirely fanciful, to speculate about what would have happened to Henry if Arthur had lived. The two brothers were very different. One might almost see them as representing the Lancastrian and Yorkist elements of their ancestry. Henry grew up tall, athletic and passionate, like his grandfather, Edward IV. If we are at all correct in portraying Arthur as studious, reserved and pious, like his father or even the unfortunate Henry VI, there could hardly have been more difference between the siblings. Would the younger have settled happily as a loyal subject and supporter of the elder? The immediate family of Edward IV had destroyed itself by fraternal rivalry. George, Duke of Clarence, was impelled by ambition and hubris to those acts which obliged his brother to order his execution. Richard of Gloucester had come to grief as the result of grasping the crown rightfully belonging to Edward’s son. Might Henry have decided, like his great-uncles, that he was a more worthy candidate for kingship than his bookish brother? The forceful, impatient Henry known to history could only have found a subservient role irksome and, perhaps, intolerable.

Nor should we neglect the impact of Arthurian legend. The heir to the throne bore the magical name of the ‘once and future king’. Henry VII had sought to merge the mystical past with the promise of a radiant future, safe in the hands of a dynasty which would restore internal unity and make England once again great. Around 1500 there existed a very real sense of new beginnings. Many English men and women felt that somehow they were on the cusp of a golden age. They looked to the Tudors with expectancy. However, if the heroic mantle of ‘Arthur’ sat only loosely around the slender shoulders of a weak king might not his brother have felt that it was imperative for him to make good the deficiency? And even if Henry had given loyal support to the anointed king, what would have happened if that king had died young, bequeathing the crown to a minor? For the third time in a century England would have been faced with the disastrous reign of a child. It is difficult to imagine Henry standing passively by while noble factions once again threatened chaos. These possibilities are not just make-believe scenarios of no real interest to the historian. They certainly occurred to Henry VII and members of the political nation. As we saw at the beginning of this chapter, ‘what ifs’ were certainly questions for debate and speculation among the nation’s leaders. They were no less so for members of the royal family whose very survival was bound up with the smooth transfer of the crown to men of stature able to wear it with dignity and conviction. As for little Henry, he emerged from the chrysalis of infancy not knowing what his future might be. There was even a suggestion that he might be pushed into the church, presumably to prevent him appearing as a rival for the crown.

If Henry saw little of his father during his childhood years it was only partly because he was lodged in his own residences. The king was preoccupied in establishing his throne. From 1491, the year of his second son’s birth, to 1500 Henry VII was seldom able to feel secure. He was repeatedly involved in dealing with rebellions and rumours of rebellions. Yorkist plots, centred round the pretender Perkin Warbeck, obliged him to despatch or lead armies to Ireland, Scotland and France as well as make frequent sorties into various parts of his realm. These military activities were expensive and the tax burden imposed by the government was the heaviest England had had to bear for more than a century. In the spring of 1497 the men of Cornwall had had enough. They raised the standard of revolt and marched eastwards. The five-year-old Prince Henry was staying at his grandmother’s house at Coldharbour when news arrived that the Cornishmen had reached Farnham. Margaret hastily packed her daughter-in-law and her children into barges and had them rowed down to the Tower. There, in the safety of the ancient royal apartments, they waited anxiously for news while the king gathered his forces together to confront his disobedient subjects on Blackheath Common. Defeating the ill-disciplined revolt was not difficult but simultaneous risings in other places made this the most hazardous summer of the reign. Henry sent troops northwards while he led his main army into the heartland of the revolution. In Devon the last vestiges of rebellion were dispelled and Warbeck was taken prisoner. However, the troubles were not over. Eighteen months later, another pretender, Ralph Wilford, put himself forward and no sooner were his pretensions brought to an end than the leading Yorkist contender, Edmund de la Pole, Earl of Suffolk, fled abroad to make a nuisance of himself in foreign courts. It is hardly surprising that the king and his younger son were able to spend little ‘quality time’ together. By the time that all immediate military threats were past it was 1502 and in that year Prince Henry’s life changed dramatically.


Henry VIII

Henry VII's eldest son was Arthur, Prince of Wales. He married Catherine of Aragon, but died shortly thereafter, leaving the throne to fall to his younger brother Henry. History has not proved kind to the memory of Henry VIII (1509-47).

He is often remembered as the grossly stout, overbearing tyrant of his later years. In his youth, however, Henry was everything it was thought a king should be. A natural athlete, a gifted musician and composer, Henry was erudite, religious, and a true leader among the monarchs of his day.

Cardinal Wolsey
Henry had none of his father's drive for the grind of administration. He handed over that role to his advisor, Cardinal Thomas Wolsey. This Henry was more concerned with cutting a fine figure than with balancing rows of figures like his father, and the result was predictable. Over the course of his reign, he managed to turn a bulging treasury into a gaping black-hole of debt.

Thomas Wolsey was the son of a Suffolk wool merchant. He became in turn Bishop of London, Archbishop of York, Cardinal and Lord Chancellor, and papal legate. He was even at one time considered seriously as a candidate for the papacy itself. Wolsey loved luxury and ostentation. He maintained a household of over 1000 people, and at the height of his power he was more king than Henry himself.

Religious Reformers
The whole of Europe was ablaze during Henry's time with the religious fervour of Reformation. Great reformers, religious and secular, called England home. Erasmus, scholar and monk, taught at Oxford, where he agitated for reform within the church. No dele Em louvor à loucura he lambasted the clergy for "observing with punctilious scrupulosity a lot of silly ceremonies and paltry traditional rules." Sir Thomas More, later Chancellor, wrote utopia, a vision of an ideal society with no church at all to get in the way of spiritual understanding.

Henry himself, despite his later break with Rome, was not a religious reformer. He was fairly orthodox in his own beliefs, and he passed measures against Lutheranism and upheld many traditional Catholic rites from attack by reformers.

Marriage to Catherine
Henry received a special dispensation from the pope in order to marry his brother's widow, Catherine. The only child of that marriage was a daughter, Mary. Henry desperately wanted a male heir, and as time went on it became obvious that Catherine would have no more children. Henry began to cast around for a solution.

Ana Bolena
For by now Henry had enough of his marriage, and was eyeing one of the Queen's ladies in waiting, Anne Boleyn. Anne refused Henry's advances without the benefit of a wedding, so Henry sent his chancellor, Cardinal Wolsey, to ask the pope for an annulment of his marriage to Catherine.

Unfortunately for the powerful Wolsey, he failed, and was deposed from office. Even the "gift" of his magnificent new palace at Hampton Court to Henry could not save Wolsey, who died shortly after his deposition, saving Henry the bother of a mock trial for treason. In Wolsey's place Thomas More was brought in to be Chancellor.

The Act of Supremacy
Henry's situation was now desperate, for Anne was pregnant, and at all costs, the child, which Henry was sure must be a son, had to be legitimate. Henry got Parliament to declare that his first marriage was void, and he secretly married Anne. Unfortunately for Henry, the child proved to be female once again, the future Elizabeth I. Over the next several years Henry's wrangle with the pope grew ever deeper, until in 1534 the Act of Supremacy was passed, making Henry, not the pope, head of the church in England. This was not at first a doctrinal split in any way, but a personal and political move.

Sir Thomas More opposed the divorce and was reluctantly executed by Henry. At the foot of the scaffold More is reported to have said, "I pray you, Master Lieutenant, see me safely up, and for my coming down, let me shift for myself".

How was Henry able to carry off the split from Rome? For one thing, the church had incurred a tremendous amount of bad feeling over the years. High church officials were seen as rich, indolent, and removed from the people they were supposed to be serving. The abbeys and monasteries were well off, and certainly subject to jealousy. Feelings against priests and churchmen ran high. The church had become too far removed from its spiritual roots and purpose.


Early Years of Henry Tudor - History

A Brief History of Henry Ford
and the Ford Motor Car Company

Born July 30, 1863 Henry Ford, grew up on the family farm in what is today Dearborn, Michigan.
Henry's childhood was that of a typical boy living in rural nineteenth century, going to school and doing farm chores. He had a dislike for farm work but an interest mechanical things which showed at an early age.

Henry Ford left home in 1879 for the nearby city of Detroit. He was sixteen at the time and going to work as an apprentice machinist. He worked at this for three years and then returned to Dearborn. Upon his return he operated and repaired steam engines, finding occasional work in a Detroit factory. He also over-hauled his father's farm implements in his spare time.
In 1888 he married Clara Bryant and supported himself and his wife by running a sawmill.

In 1891, Ford he went to work for the Edison Illuminating Company in Detroit as an engineer.
He showed a great interest in industrial pursuits. He was promoted to Chief Engineer in 1893.
This gave him enough time and money to devote attention to his personal experiments on internal combustion engines.
These experiments led to the completion of his own self-propelled vehicle, the Quadricycle in 1896.

Although Ford was not the first to build a self-propelled vehicle, he was, however, one of several automotive pioneers who helped this country become a nation of motorists.

In 1899 Ford quit his job at Edison and with the help of some investors, he started the Detroit Auto Company
which ended in failure.

Ford moved back to his father's home in 1901. He built a car on his own and with it beat Alexander Winton in an automobile race. This attracted more investors and enabled him to form the Henry Ford Co.
Ford withdrew from that company and it became Cadillac in 1902.
In 1903 he formed the Ford Motor Co. The Model A was produced in a rented plant on Mack Ave.
This arrangement last for one year and in 1903 he built a plant on Piquette Ave.
This building is still standing and being restored.
In the same year Ford of Canada was founded in Windsor Ontario.
By 1906 Ford had overtaken Olds, Buick and Cadillac combined to become No.1 auto maker in U.S.
In the same year Henry Ford became the company president and majority owner.
The famous model T was introduced in 1908 and as we all know the rest is HISTORY.

For a more detailed and complete history on the Ford please use the links below.

This page was last updated Jan 1, 2017

Wheels For Wishes is a vehicle donation program benefiting Make-A-Wish.
Donate an unwanted car, truck, boat, motorcycle, or other vehicle and
help to make a wish come true for a local child.

These pictures came for a number of sources including web
pages of the manufacturer, news groups and my own.
Since most of these pictures came from news groups there may be a
chance that your car is shown here.

I would like to invite any one that has a favourite Ford picture or a Web Page
that they would like added to this page to E mail me a copy.

1896 Ford
The Car That Started it All
Henry Ford's First Car
Click on this image for a larger view in a new window


Ford Quadricycle about 1902. This is possibly the 1st Automobile to grace the streets of Newmarket
This picture was submitted by Jim Parker and used with the permission of Newmarket Historical Society

Old Car and
Truck Ads
Kustom Cars of the 1950's


This image is by John Evans

The 1896 Ford shown above may be what started it all for
the Ford Motor Company but for many of us this
Ford was where it really began.


I think this is very interesting and not known by many

The following 1952 Aluminum Ford Engine article was posted on The Jolopy Jurnal by Ryan Cochran
That's the October, 1952 cover of Hot Rod Magazine. It features the FoMoCo produced aluminum block flathead. According to the article inside, ten of these blocks were produced in 1940 for experimental use in small airplanes. After being subjected to some serious dyno time, it was found that a thermal condition (aluminum expands and retracts faster than steel) caused the steel cylinder sleeves to buckle near the top of the cylinder bore, resulting in severe scuffing of the pistons.

Other pages in this set
1936 to 1940
1950 to 1958
1959 to 1969
1941 to 1949

Although this page includes a selection of Model T and Model A pictures
you will find a more complete listing on the pages below

Total hits on all the car pages

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Henry Carey by Sarah Bryson

On 4th March 1526, Mary Boleyn gave birth to a son she named Henry Carey. Mary Boleyn was a member of Henry VIII's court, was married to courtier William Carey and was also the older sister of Anne Boleyn, who would become Queen of England. I believe that Mary Boleyn was also the mistress of Henry VIII from around 1522 – 1525.

Over the centuries, there has always been a great deal of debate as to who Henry Carey's father was. Henry Carey was conceived during 1525, the year, I believe, that Mary's relationship with Henry VIII was coming to an end. It may be possible that during the last few times the King slept with Mary she conceived. It has also been suggested that Henry would not have wished to share Mary with her husband, keeping her to himself during the entire period of their relationship.

During his life there were also rumours that Henry Carey looked quite a lot like Henry VIII and that Henry VIII gave Mary's husband William Carey a series of grants and appointments around the time each child was born in an attempt to keep him happy. It has also been proposed that Queen Elizabeth was close Henry Carey this must have been because they were in fact half-brother and sister rather than just cousins. Queen Elizabeth knighted Henry Carey and made him Baron Hunsdon she also visited him on his death-bed offering him the Earldom of Wiltshire (once owned by his grandfather Thomas Boleyn).

On the other hand, there are just as many reasons proposed as to why Henry VIII was not Henry Carey's father. It is just as plausible that during the time Mary was the King's mistress she may have also been sleeping with her husband. Henry VIII never acknowledged Henry as his son, where he had acknowledged Henry Fitzroy, a son he bore with his previous mistress Bessie Blount.

It has also been proposed that Henry VIII may have had low fertility and thus there would be a low probability that Mary could become pregnant by the King. It has also been suggested that the grants given to William Carey could have simply been to keep him silent and happy about his wife sleeping with the King, as well as for his dedicated service to the King. Also the reason that Queen Elizabeth showed great favour to Henry Carey was simply because they were cousins.

Whatever the truth regarding Henry Carey’s biological father, it was William Carey, Mary's husband, that acknowledged baby Henry as his son and heir. Henry Carey would grow up to become a prominent and impressive member at court.

On the 21st May 1545 Henry obtained a licence to marry Anne Morgan daughter of Sir Thomas Morgan. The couple would go on to have twelve children together - nine sons and three daughters.

During his early years Henry Carey became a diplomat, ambassador and a member of parliament. In 1546, during the reign of Henry VIII, Carey accompanied John Dudley, Viscount Lisle on an embassy mission to France. In the first year of Edward VI's reign Carey was MP for the borough of Buckingham and during the reign of Mary I he was a carver of the privy chamber. In 1557 Carey was held in the Fleet prison for debts of £507 which had occurred in 1551 but was soon released on bond on the 19th May.

When Elizabeth I came to the throne, Henry was knighted and on 13th January 1559 he was created Baron Hunsdon and granted substantial lands in Kent, Hertfordshire and Essex which provided a yearly income of £4000, a huge sum at the time. On 31st October 1560 Henry was appointed as Master of the Queen's hawks and then on 18th Mary 1561 he was created a Knight of the Garter, the highest order of chivalry in England. In 1564 Carey was granted the distinct honour of leading a mission to France where he presented the Order of the Garter to the French King Charles IX, on behalf of Elizabeth I. He also witnessed the signing of the treaty of Troyes between England and France.
On the 25th of August 1568 Carey was appointed Governor of Berwick, a position which saw him protecting the north of England from Scottish invaders and any possible rebellions. One such rebellion took place on the 20th January 1570. Henry Carey and a group of around 1500 soldiers faced English rebel, Leonard Dacre, who was part of an uprising in the North of England. Carey and his men, although outnumbered, stood strong and managed to scatter the rebel army which quickly fled north along with Dacre. In response to his victory Elizabeth I wrote to her cousin declaring that: ‘I doubt much, my Harry, whether that the victory was given me more joyed me or that you were by God appointed the instrument of my glory’. For the country's good the first suffices, but ‘for my heart's contentment the second more pleased me’.

On 23 October 1571 Carey was appointed Warden of the East Marshes which afforded him even greater responsibilities in protecting the north of England. On the 16th of November 1577 Henry received the high distinction of being appointed as a member of the Privy Council. This provided him greater access not only to the Queen but to the administration of England's policies. Carey focused the remainder of his years upon his work in the Privy Council, although there were four occasions between 1578 and 1588 that he was recalled north to protect the Northern boarders and to negotiate with the Scots. In fact Henry Carey was so influential in Scottish matters that he was seen as the leading member on the Privy Council in Scottish matters and the Scottish King, James VI wrote personally to Carey on several occasions.

During 1583, Elizabeth I re-appointed Henry as captain of the Gentlemen Pensioners and in July 1585 he was appointed as Lord Chamberlain of the household as well as continuing his privy councillor duties. In 1589 Carey was appointed as Chief Justice in Eyre South of Trent and on the 2nd of March 1592 he was appointed High Steward of Oxford for the remainder of his life. This appointment added to his other stewardships of Doncaster and Ipswich which had been granted to him in 1590.

Henry was active in political life until his death on 23rd July 1596 at Somerset House. Just as his sister Catherine, Henry Carey was buried at Westminster Abbey, the expenses of this paid by his cousin Elizabeth I. It is rumoured that on his death-bed Elizabeth I offered Henry the Earldom of Wiltshire, a title held by his grandfather Thomas Boleyn. However Henry refused the title stating that if Elizabeth did not think him worthy of the title while he was alive he would not accept it now that he was dying.

Henry Carey was a hardworking, dedicated servant and courtier of his cousin and Queen, Elizabeth I. He proved himself both on the battle field and in political matters. Upon his death Carey was succeeded by his son George Carey who became 2nd Baron Hunsdon.


Henry VII Tudor as King Of England

‘His [Henry VII] body was slender but well built and strong his height above the average. His appearance was remarkably attractive and his face was cheerful especially when speaking his eyes were small and blue his teeth few, poor and blackish his hair was thin and grey his complexion pale’.
Polydore Vergil, from the Anglica Historia

Many historians have long argued that Bosworth Field marked the end of medieval England, and the beginning of more modern government. This assumes at least some drastic changes occurred during the 24 years Henry ruled England. However, no such changes occurred. Henry maintained the government of his predecessors he simply had a more efficient administration.
This should detract from his formidable accomplishments. Despite his very questionable claim to the throne, Henry proved himself to be an able and enthusiastic king. He devoted himself to the minutiae of government, personally initialing household account books. He was quite miserly, which greatly benefited his spendthrift son Henry VIII, but this was understandable – the first Tudor king knew financial success would be the life or death of his new dynasty. Like all monarchs, he needed money – and often badly. But he needed parliament’s permission to raise taxes or create new ones. Yet Henry knew that parliament would be opposed to giving a new – and unpopular king – more sources of revenue, particularly since England’s economy was not prosperous. And so Henry only called parliament seven times during his reign. Instead of creating new methods to raise money, he cannily exploited the existing sources. Every loophole that existed was stretched wide – Henry sought every penny he could from every source of revenue. And he protected the money fanatically. Few monarchs lived so frugally, and as Francis Bacon noted, ‘towards his queen [Elizabeth of York] he was nothing uxorious, nor scarce indulgent….’
For Henry VII, money equaled security. And so rights of Wardship, Marriage, Promotions, and Death, forced loans and benvolences, and trade dues were all tools to gain financial security.

Upon becoming king, Henry’s immediate problem was the same as his Yorkist predecessors – the legitimacy of his claim to the throne. Bosworth Field had not ended the struggle for England’s crown, and Henry faced considerable unrest throughout the early years of his reign. The Northerners (who never lost their distrust of the Tudors) had supported Richard III, and did not welcome a Welsh king. And Yorkist support continued in Ireland (where Lambert Simnel was crowned Edward VI 1487), and in Europe (where Edward IV and Richard III’s sister Margaret lived on as the influential duchess of Burgundy.) Also, because Henry’s claim to the throne was so weak, he inevitably had to work harder to create the impression of royal authority. By all accounts, he lacked the majesty, or charisma, of his son Henry VIII and granddaughter Elizabeth I. But charisma was perhaps a negligible quality during those early years more important were hard work, dedication, and discipline. And Henry possessed those qualities in abundance.

[The story of the impostors Lambert Simnel and Perkin Warbeck is told at my Plantagenet England site. There is a link back to the Henry VII page from there.]

First, Henry benefited directly from the Wars of the Roses – heirs to many of the old noble families were killed during the battles. Henry simply appropriated their lands and revenue. Those that had supported Richard III (those that survived, that is) were attainted and their estates confiscated. He also created a council ‘Learned in the Law’ in 1495 to deal with enforcement of already-existing taxes, particularly those owed by the nobility. Henry also forbid nobles to retain their own armies. A small number of attendants was acceptable, but Henry did not want any lord to have more power than the king. Edward IV had attempted the same maneuver, with less success. Henry was aided by a simple fact – as king, he owned most of the gunpowder in the country. Therefore, he simply blew up the castles and keeps of recalcitrant barons. It was quite an effective policy, though Henry did not curb the power and influence of all nobles. But it is worth noting that the English nobility, already in decline during the Wars of the Roses, fell from influence rapidly under the Tudors – under Elizabeth I, for instance, England had just one duke (and he was executed for treason.)

Henry did continue the Yorkist tradition of promoting government officers from the middle class (primarily clerics and lawyers.) But he did not create the middle class government that many historians propose nobles still retained the most powerful positions. Henry kept many of Edward IV and Richard III’s councilors, and these were either from the aristocracy, or related through marriage. But it should be noted that the middle class was growing in power and influence, and carefully making its way through the corridors of power.

Henry also revived the powers of the Justices of the Peace, first introduced by Henry II. They administered the king’s justice throughout England, and were supposedly free of local prejudices. His Yorkist predecessors had appointed a Council of the North and thus allowed the great border families of Neville, Dacre, Scrope, and Percy to rule as virtually independent princes with their own armies. This was necessary because the Scottish border was notoriously difficult to maintain raids from the north were all too common, and the Yorkists had needed the Northern lords to protect English interests. When Edward IV was king, Richard had been ‘Lord of the North’, having inherited the vast Neville estates through his wife. Henry was not so inclined – he did not want the Northern families to be too powerful after all, they could turn that power against their king. But he also knew the North needed a strong leader, a servant of the crown. And so he released the last Percy heir, the earl of Northumberland, from the Tower of London and appointed him Lord Warden of the East and Middle Marches. But Henry carefully trimmed Percy’s powers, and only allowed the council to meet sporadically. He successfully subdued it into becoming a mere extension of his own London-based authority.

Henry also attempted to quell the Scottish problem, and undercut the Auld Alliance (the alliance between France and Scotland), by marrying his eldest daughter Margaret to the king of Scots in 1503. He planned to marry his youngest daughter, Mary, to Charles, the prince of Castile. His eldest son and heir apparent, Prince Arthur, was wed to the youngest daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, the powerful ‘Catholic Kings’ of Spain. With these marriage alliances, Henry hoped to protect his domestic interests he did not want to engage in costly foreign wars since the establishment of his own dynasty was more important, but he needed foreign allies. Marriage was less costly than war, and – Henry hoped – more effective. The matches were impressive, particularly the match with Spain since it meant that the most powerful European monarchs recognized his shaky claim to the throne.

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Henry VIII 1491–1547 King of England

The reign of Henry VIII marked the true beginning of the Renaissance in England. During his younger years, Henry appeared to be the ideal Renaissance monarch—handsome and dashing, fond of sports and pageantry, well educated, and a supporter of the arts and learning. However, less attractive features appeared during the later years of his reign, when he faced increasing troubles in his married life and economic and social strains within his kingdom.

Early Rule. The second ruler of the Tudor dynasty, Henry was the younger son of Henry VII. His brother Arthur, the heir to the throne, died in 1502, a year after marrying the Spanish princess Catherine of Aragon. Henry took the throne upon his father's death in 1509 and married his brother's widow in hopes of continuing friendly relations with Spain.

Henry and Catherine remained happily married for 18 years. During this time, Henry was devoted to the Roman Catholic Church and the papacy*. He joined the pope's Holy League, an alliance aimed at preventing France from gaining territory in Italy, and he supported the papacy against the Protestant ideas of Martin Luther. The pope gave Henry the title "Defender of the Faith" in thanks for his support.

By 1527, however, Henry had become concerned about the lack of a male heir. Catherine's childbearing days were over, and their only surviving child was a daughter named Mary. The king feared that the English would not accept a female ruler. Determined to continue the Tudor dynasty, he tried to end his marriage to Catherine. He planned to take Anne Boleyn, one of Catherine's attendants, as his second wife.

The king and his chief minister Thomas Wolsey asked the pope to grant Henry an annulment* and permission to remarry. Normally, such a request would not have posed a problem. However, Catherine opposed the divorce, as did her nephew Charles V, the king of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor*. The pope denied the divorce because he needed Charles's help in various political matters. In response, Henry summoned the so-called Reformation Parliament in 1529 and began taking steps to undermine the power of the Catholic Church in England.

The English Reformation. In 1533 Thomas Cromwell, Henry's new chief minister, proposed that England should break its ties with Rome. This would allow the archbishop of Canterbury, head of the English church, to grant the divorce. Thomas Cranmer, the new archbishop, supported the plan. Henry married Anne Boleyn in January, and a few months later Parliament passed a law denying the papacy any authority in England. Cranmer then granted Henry his divorce and legalized his marriage to Anne. In September, Anne give birth to Henry's second daughter, Elizabeth.

Parliament continued to reshape the English church. It passed laws that named Henry VIII as Supreme Head of the Church, cut off all payments to the papacy, regulated church doctrine, and closed all the Catholic monasteries in England. Although many English people were unhappy about these actions, others welcomed the reform of a church they viewed as corrupt.

In 1536 Henry came to believe that Anne Boleyn had been unfaithful. She was charged with adultery and beheaded. Soon afterward, Henry took his third wife, Jane Seymour, who provided the king with his long-awaited son, Prince Edward. Jane died from complications of childbirth. Henry married three more times, but none of these wives bore him any children.

Troubles both at home and abroad marred the later years of Henry's reign. Following the break with Rome, Henry and his advisers feared that Catholic powers in Europe would wage war on England. The government spent vast sums of money on building up the nation's military defenses. In addition, after about 1536 the members of Henry's government were divided over the issues of further reforms in the church and in social policy. The country also faced economic and social strains. One major source of tension was the growing practice of enclosure, which involved converting open fields into pasture for sheep. This movement pushed many rural laborers from their homes and led to social unrest.

Henry and the Renaissance. Renaissance ideas had begun to trickle into England during the reign of Henry VII. Under Henry VIII, these ideas spread more rapidly and widely. Sir Thomas More, Henry's lord chancellor, led a group of humanists* at the court who promoted Renaissance learning. One of More's followers, Sir Thomas Elyot, wrote a treatise* that examined Renaissance ideas on political thought and education. Elyot also helped revive ancient medical teachings and produced the first English dictionary of classical* Latin. In addition, More's circle included the German artist Hans Holbein the Younger, who painted several portraits of the king and some of his wives.

After Henry's break with Rome, religious debates and divisions drew public attention away from humanist studies. But Renaissance ideas had taken hold, and they grew in popularity and importance during the reign of Henry's daughter Elizabeth I and her successor, James I.

office and authority of the pope

formal declaration that a marriage is legally invalid

ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, a political body in central Europe composed of several states that existed until 1806

Renaissance expert in the humanities (the languages, literature, history, and speech and writing techniques of ancient Greece and Rome)


Resolute Catherine

Miniature of Catherine of Aragon by Lucas Horenbout c. 1525.

On June 22, 1527, Henry told Catherine that their marriage was over.

Catherine was stunned and wounded, but determined. She made it clear that she would not agree to a divorce. She was convinced that there had been no impediment -- lawful, moral or religious -- to their marriage, and that she must continue in her role as Henry's wife and queen.

Although Henry continued to show Catherine respect, he forged ahead with his plans to obtain an annulment, not realizing that Clement VII would never grant him one. During the months of negotiations that followed, Catherine remained at court, enjoying the support of the people, but growing isolated from the courtiers as they abandoned her in favor of Anne Boleyn.

In Autumn of 1528, the pope ordered that the matter be handled in a trial in England, and appointed Cardinal Campeggio and Thomas Wolsey to conduct it. Campeggio met with Catherine and tried to persuade her to give up her crown and enter a convent, but the queen held to her rights. She lodged an appeal to Rome against the authority of the court the papal legates planned to hold.

Wolsey and Henry believed Campeggio had irrevocable papal authority, but in fact the Italian cardinal had been instructed to delay matters. And delay them he did. The Legatine Court did not open until May 31, 1529. When Catherine appeared before the tribunal on June 18, she stated that she did not recognize its authority. When she returned three days later, she threw herself at her husband's feet and begged for his compassion, swearing that she'd been a maid when they'd wed and had always been a loyal wife.

Henry responded kindly, but Catherine's plea failed to deter him from his course. She in turn persisted in appealing to Rome, and refused to return to the court. In her absence, she was judged contumacious, and it looked like Henry would soon receive a decision in his favor. Instead, Campeggio found an excuse for further delay and in August, Henry was ordered to appear before the papal curia in Rome.

Furious, Henry at last understood he would not get what he wanted from the pope, and he began to look for other ways to resolve his dilemma. Circumstances may have seemed cast in Catherine's favor, but Henry had decided otherwise, and it was only a matter of time before her world would spin out of her control.


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